[_All rights reserved_]



_Square 16mo, cloth extra, 2s. 6d. each.


ABOUT SOME FELLOWS; or, Odds and Ends from My Note-book.

CAMBRIDGE TRIFLES; or, Splutterings from an Undergraduate's Pen.


_Crown 8vo, cloth, 6s._


WRITTEN TO ORDER: being some Account of the Journeyings of an

Irresponsible Egotist, and of How he enjoyed himself thereon.




Sergeant William Lawrence died at Studland in Dorsetshire in the year

1867, bequeathing the manuscript of the accompanying autobiography to

the family one of whose members now submits it to the notice of the

public. Circumstances, which perhaps may be too often interpreted as

really meaning an unfortunate tendency to procrastination, have

hitherto prevented it being put into shape with a view to publication:

one thing after another has intervened, and the work has been passed

on from hand to hand, until after these long years a final effort has

been made, and the self-imposed task completed.


The book is simply sent forth on its own merits in the hope that there

are yet some, if not indeed many whose hearts are never weary of the

tales of England's glory in the past, and seek to find in them reason

why that glory should be perpetuated. Many an account have we already

had of the victories of the Peninsula and Waterloo, and this but adds

one more to the list: though perhaps it may be regarded in somewhat of

a supplementary light, as treating of the campaigns neither from an

entirely outside and _soi-disant_ unprejudiced standpoint, nor with

the advantages possessed by one who may have had access to the

councils of the authorities, but as they were seen by one who came and

went and did as he was told, and was as it were nothing more than a

single factor in the great military machine that won our country those

battles of which she has so much right to be proud. What criticisms of

the conduct of the war our veteran occasionally does indulge in are of

course chiefly founded on the camp gossip current at the time, and in

reading them it must always be borne in mind that events at the moment

of their happening often do not present the same appearance as when

viewed from the calmer security of after years, and they must be

judged accordingly.


As to the style. Lawrence, though he never betrayed the fact to the

authorities during his whole military career, being possessed of a

wonderful aptitude for mental calculation, and always contriving to

get some assistance in concealing his deficiency when his official

duties necessitated his doing so, and though he has carefully avoided

all direct allusion to it in this work itself, never learnt to write,

and the first form in which his history was committed to paper was

from dictation. The person who took down the words as he spoke them,

one of his fellow-servants, was but imperfectly educated himself, so

that it may be imagined that the result of the narrative of one

illiterate person being written down by another was that the style

was not likely to aspire to any very high degree of literary merit.

Still, to preserve the peculiar character of the book, it has been

thought better to leave it as far as possible in its original shape:

some emendations have perforce had to be made to render it actually

intelligible--for instance, in the original manuscript there is

scarcely any punctuation from beginning to end, with the exception of

at those places where the amanuensis evidently left off his day's

work; but the language, with its occasional half-flights into a poetry

of about the standard of an Eton boy's verses, its crude moralizings,

and imperfect applications of old proverbs and fables, has not been

altered, nor, so far as there can be said to be one, has the method.

It is trusted, therefore, that, remembering that the main object in

the editor's mind has been to let the venerable hero tell his story in

exactly his own words so far as his meaning can be thereby made out,

no one will take any unnecessary pains to count up how often the words

"likewise" and "proceed" are repeated in these pages, or to point out

that the general style of the book combines those of Tacitus, Caesar's

Commentaries, and the Journeyings of the Israelites. Nor, it is to be

hoped, will any one be too severe in his comments on the fact that to

the mind of a man in Lawrence's position the obtaining of a pair of

boots was apparently quite as important an event as the storming of

Badajoz, or the finding of a sack with a ham and a couple of fowls in

it as the winning of the battle of Waterloo.


Interesting perhaps the book will prove as giving some of the details

of what our soldiers had to undergo in those old times of war.

Hardships they now have to endure, and endure them they do well, but

all must be thankful to know that they are far better off than their

forefathers; who, unsuitably clad, half starved, and with their

commissariat such even as it was disgracefully mismanaged, and yet

forbidden very often under pain of death to pick up what they could

for themselves, submitted on the shortest notice to punishments which

would nowadays call forth the indignant protests of hosts of newspaper

correspondents; and still in spite of all fought stubbornly through

every obstacle till they had gained the objects for which they had

been sent out. What wonder can there be that under all these

circumstances we should find our hero somewhat hardened in his

estimate of human sympathies, and not altogether disinclined to view

everything, whether it concerned life or death, or marriage, or

parting or meeting, all in one phlegmatic way, as occurring as a

matter of course? What ought to strike us as more curious is that he

was only reduced to that level of intellect where he thought even

that much of anything at all besides his actual eating, drinking, and



But to go on further would be to depart from the original intention of

letting the book speak for itself. To conclude therefore: there is

much to wade through, though it is all more or less relevant to the

progress of the story: some readers may like one part and some may

prefer another; and if the pruning-hook had once been introduced it

would have been difficult to decide what to leave and what to take,

or whether it would not be better to publish another volume of the

things pruned, since it had been determined to publish at all. But if

the reader will accomplish the wading to the end, there will he find

summed up in one simple paragraph the autobiographer's own ideas about

the merits of his work. May it be received in the same spirit as it is

sent forth!



  CHAPTER I.                                                 Page

    Starting in Life                                            1


    Enlisted and ordered Abroad                                 9


    The River Plate Expedition--Monte Video                    16


    The River Plate Expedition, continued--Colonia             26


    The River Plate Expedition, concluded--Buenos Ayres        35


    The Peninsula, 1809--Vimeira--Lisbon                       42


    Talavera                                                   51


    1810--Busaco                                               59


    Torres Vedras                                              67


    1811--Pombal, Redinha, &c.                                 77


    Siege of Badajoz--Albuera                                  87


    1812--Ciudad Rodrigo                                       95


    Badajoz                                                   107


    Invalided--Promotion                                      120


    1813--Vittoria                                            131


    The Pyrenees--Villebar                                    143


    The Nive--Further Promotion                               154


    San Sebastian--Nivelle                                    167


    1814--Orthes--The Adour--Toulouse                         175


    End of the War                                            185


    To America and back--Napoleon's escape from Elba          194


    Waterloo                                                  204


    Paris--Matrimony                                          217


    Return to Great Britain                                   227


    Family matters                                            233


    Pensioned and Discharged                                  245





     Lawrence's Parentage -- Birth and early training -- Apprenticed

     -- He falls out with his master -- Is beaten and resolves to

     leave -- A few words to masters in general -- Finds a companion

     -- Precautions against being forgotten too soon -- To Poole _viâ_

     Wareham -- Engages for a voyage to Newfoundland -- Recaptured and

     sent back, but escapes again on the way -- Receives some good

     advice, and starts to Dorchester, picking up some fresh company

     on the way.



As I have been asked to furnish as complete an account as I am able of

my own life, and it is usual when people undertake to do so to start

at as early a period as possible, I will begin with my parentage. My

father and mother were of humble means, living in the village of

Bryant's Piddle, in the county of Dorset. My father had been formerly

a small farmer on his own account in the same village, but having a

large and hungry family to provide for, he became reduced in

circumstances, and was obliged to give up his farm, and work as a



I was born in 1791, and, being one of seven children, found myself

compelled at a very early age to seek my own livelihood as best I

could, so that I had not much opportunity for education, though I

cannot say that I thought that much hardship at the time, being fonder

of an open-air life. I was employed for some time in frightening the

birds off the corn, for which I received the sum of twopence a day;

after which I was advanced to sixpence a day as ploughboy, in which

situation I remained until I was fourteen years of age. My father then

obtained twenty pounds from a friend, with which he apprenticed me to

Henry Bush, a builder living at Studland, a village in the same

county, for seven years, the agreement being that my master was to

find me in food, lodging, and clothes, and I was to receive no wages.


I had not been with him very long before I found that he did not suit

me as a master at all well. Things went on pretty smoothly for the

first month or so, that is, while the money for my apprenticeship

lasted; but after that he became rather difficult to please, and

besides took to allowancing me in food, which was a much more serious

matter both to my mind and palate.


However, I rubbed on for about nine months, until one Sunday, when I

had gone out to church in the morning and had happened to stay in the

village all day, on my return home at last after dark I found the

house locked up. I accordingly proceeded to Swanage, the nearest town,

and called on my master's sister, who lived there, who took me in and

was giving me some supper, when my master chanced to come in himself,

and was very angry with me and told me to come along with him,

declaring that he would pay me out in the morning. When we got home he

ordered me to see if the garden gate was closed, which I thought

rather strange, as it was a thing I had never had to do before; but

meanwhile he slipped upstairs with a horsewhip, which he produced

suddenly in the morning, and gave me a good thrashing before I had

well got my clothes on. I bundled downstairs pretty much as I was, and

out of the house as quick as I could, saying to myself, "This is the

last thrashing I will ever receive at your hands;" and sure enough it

was, for that same week I planned with another apprentice near the

same place, who was under very similar circumstances to myself, to

take our departure on the following Sunday; so that was the end of my



And I should like here to warn any master whose eye may fall on this

story not to treat any lad who is put under his care too harshly, as

it is very often the means of discouraging him in the occupation he is

intended to follow, and of driving him from his home, and even from

his country, and to his ruin. Thus even in my case it will be seen

that it was all my master's want of kindness that forced me into a

very different sort of life to that which my parents intended for me;

into one which, though it was not altogether so ruinous, was perhaps

more perilous than many others, and on which I can only now look back

in wonder that I have been spared to tell my story at all.


But I must go back to the day on which myself and my companion had

resolved to leave our homes, which as I have before stated was a

Sunday, no better opportunity appearing by which we might get a few

hours' start unbeknown to our employers. We met early in the morning,

but finding that neither of us had either money or food, and I

likewise wanting to get hold of my indentures, we waited until the

family had left the house as usual to go to Swanage to chapel, when I

made my entry into the house by the back door, which was only

fastened by a piece of rope-yarn. I could not find my indentures, but

in the search for them I came upon a seven-shilling piece, which I put

into my pocket, as I thought it might be useful. I also cut about

three or four pounds off a flitch of bacon that hung in the chimney

corner, nicely marked to prevent any being lost on account of my late

allowanced state. I did not study that much at the time, however, but

took what I thought we should require, and when I had put it into a

bag with the necessary amount of bread, we marched off together up to

a place near called King's Wood, where we put a little of our bread

and raw bacon out of sight, for we were both hungry. Then we went on

to Wareham, a distance of about ten miles, where we changed our

seven-shilling piece, and had a pint of small beer to help us in again

lightening our bundle; and, after about an hour's rest, proceeded on

for Poole, about nine miles from Wareham. We felt very tired, but

still walked on, and gained our destination at a very late hour, owing

to which we had some trouble in obtaining a lodging for the remaining

part of the night; but at last we found one in a public house, where

we finished our bread and bacon, together with some more beer, the

best day's allowance we had had for some time past.


We slept very soundly, and in the morning went round to inquire for

service on board the Newfoundland packets. We soon found a merchant of

the name of Slade, who engaged us for two summers and a winter,

myself for 20_l._ and my companion for 18_l._ for the whole time, and

our food and lodging till the ship left the harbour. But we were not

long in finding that our destination was not to be Newfoundland, for

on the very next day my companion's master came to Poole in search of

us, and meeting his own boy wandering about the market, soon wished to

know what business he had there, and took him into custody. He

likewise asked him if he had seen anything of me, and the boy told him

I was in Poole, but he did not know where. I at the time was at work

on board the ship, but in the evening, having fallen in with the mate,

he asked me where I was going. When I said to my lodgings, beginning

rather to shake, for I thought by his manner that there was something

up, he told me that I had better come with him. I did so, and

presently found myself with my companion's master, who finished up for

the night by having me put into gaol.


Next day we were both taken on board the Swanage market-boat to go

back, but when we had got as far as South Deep, near Brownsea Castle,

we had to anchor, as the wind was contrary. A number of stone-boats

were lying there at the time, and one of the boatmen, named Reuben

Masters, took charge of me to convey me back to my master's house, as

he was going by it; so we landed, and proceeded towards home. When we

were about half a mile off it, however, we met my mistress, who, after

inquiring where I had been, told me that her husband would have

nothing more to do with me, but would send me to prison. I could have

told her I did not want to trouble him any more, but I thought I would

leave that for them to find out; so I went on with the man to the next

gate, when, seeing an opportunity to bolt; I took it and popped over

to the other side; and all I heard the man say was, "Well, you may go,

and your master may run after you for himself if he likes;" so I knew

there was not much to fear from him.


I ran down into the common, to a place called Agglestone, which I knew

had once been a great place for foxes, and there I crawled into a hole

and remained till dusk. Then I came out of my den, and again made my

way to Wareham. I called this time at the "Horse and Groom," where,

having related my story to the landlady, she kindly gave me food and

lodging for the night, advising me to go back to my parents and state

my master's behaviour. So next morning, after she had provided me with

breakfast, and some bread and cheese to eat on the way, I set off for



On the road I met with two boys who were going to Poole to try and get

a ship bound for Newfoundland. I wanted some companions on my journey,

so I told them not to go to Poole, as the press-gang was about, and,

when I had been there myself a few days before, had fired a

blunderbuss at me, but I happened to pop round the corner and so had

escaped. The boys did not seem fit for soldiers, or sailors either,

for they looked as if they had lain in the sun for some time, and one

of them was warped. When they heard my story, they turned back and

kept with me. They soon began to complain of hunger, but when I asked

them if they had got any money, they said they had only one shilling

and a farthing, with a hundred miles to travel before they reached

their home again; so I took out my bread and cheese and divided it

amongst us. We were very tired and hungry when we arrived at

Dorchester, and I tried to persuade them to change the shilling, but

they would not. However, they gave me the farthing; it was not much

certainly for a hungry boy, but it served to purchase a cake for me to

devour; and then I and my companions parted, and what became of them

afterwards I do not know.







     Lawrence's forlorn state of mind in Dorchester -- He meets with a

     friend in need, who takes him to enlist -- Is discovered and

     recovered by his parents, and ordered back sharp to his master --

     His military spirit proves too strong for him on the way, and

     carries him, through the agency of a friendly soldier, first to

     Bridport, and then to Taunton -- Various further attempts at

     enlisting, slightly influenced by the disinterestedness of his

     friend, and ending in his joining the Fortieth Regiment --

     Subsequent changes of quarters, and final orders for foreign




Dorchester was only about eight miles from my parents' house, but I

had never really had one serious thought of going to them. I seemed to

myself to be completely friendless, and wandered through and through

the town, watching the preparations for the fair, which was to take

place the next day, not being able to make up my mind what to do or

where to go.


At length, more by instinct than aim, I wandered into the stable-yard

of one of the principal inns, where I was brought nearer to my senses

by hearing the ostler sing out sharply, "Hullo, my man, what is your

business?" I told him I was a friendless boy in search of some

employment by which I might get a livelihood, as I was very hungry and

had no money, or something to that effect; to which he replied that if

I would brush about a bit, and help him rub over the horses, he would

find me plenty to eat. I soon went to work, and finished the task he

gave me; and sure enough he fulfilled his share of the bargain by

bringing the requisite article in the shape of a lump of bread and

beef enough for two or three meals. After eating as much as I wanted,

as I felt very tired, I made up a bed for myself with some straw, and

putting the remainder of my meal into my handkerchief to serve as a

pillow, laid myself down, and the ostler having given me a rug to pull

over me, I slept soundly there the whole night.


In the morning, after I had done a little more in the stable, I walked

out with my new friend into the street, where seeing some soldiers, I

told him I should like to become one. He said he knew where he could

enlist me, and took me straight to the rendezvous, which was in a

public-house, where we met a sergeant of artillery, who gave him two

guineas for bringing me and myself five for coming, and when my

measurement had been taken, a proceeding which was accompanied with no

small amount of joking, I was put into an old soldier's coat, and with

three or four yards of ribbon hanging from my cap, paraded the town

with other recruits, entering and treating some one or other in almost

every public-house.


It almost seemed, however, as if my hopes were again to be blighted,

for in the very first house I entered, there sat a farmer from my home

who knew me very well, and exclaimed on seeing me, "Hullo, young

fellow, as you make your bed so you must lie on it." I entreated him

not to tell my father and mother where and how he had seen me, and

made my exit as quickly as possible; but later in the day I

encountered another man, my father's next-door neighbour, who also

recognized me immediately. I offered him the price of a gallon of ale

not to say anything, and he promised, taking the money, but as soon as

he got home he went to my father and acquainted him with what I was up



How I was spending the rest of the night meanwhile can better be

conceived than described; but next morning, as I was going up to the

Town Hall with an officer to be sworn in, who should meet us but my

father and mother. On their telling the officer that I was an

apprentice, he gave me up to them without any further trouble, except

that he asked me what had become of my bounty money, and on finding

that I had only seventeen shillings and sixpence left out of my whole

five guineas, kindly took the care of even that off my hands. Then we

marched off home, and my father went to find out what was to be done

in the matter from a magistrate, who advised him to take me back to

Dorchester to be tried at the next sittings; which advice being acted

on, I was severely reprimanded by the bench, and given my choice of

serving my time or else going to prison. Of course I chose the former,

and they gave me a letter to take with me to my master. When I got

downstairs I met the officer who had enlisted me, who told me that if

my master was unwilling to take me back, he would enlist me again; and

finding on asking me if I had any money that he had taken all I

possessed, he gave me a shilling and wished me well.


My father sent me off at once with strict orders to get back to

Studland as quickly as I could, and that was all I received from him

either in the way of blessing or anything: so with a heavy heart I set

out on my retreat from Dorchester. I had not gone very far when I was

overtaken by a dairyman's cart, in which the owner gave me a lift,

asking me where I was bound for. I told him a little of my story, and

showed him the letter, that he might open it and see what was inside:

which, when he had done, he said I could go back quite safely, for my

master would not be able to hurt me. That put me into rather better

spirits, though I did not intend to go back all the same.


I rode along with the man as far as he went, and then continued on

foot to a village called Winfrith, where I went into a public-house,

and feeling hungry, ordered some bread and cheese. A soldier happened

to be in there, who was on furlough, bound for Bridport, and the very

sight of him again revived my old spirit and made me long to be like

him. I got into conversation with him, and said how much I wished to

be a soldier, to which he straightway answered that he could enlist me

for the Fortieth Regiment Foot, which gave sixteen guineas bounty. I

thought that was a great deal, and that if I got it I should not want

for money for some time, so I quickly accepted his proposal: I soon

found out, though, that I was very mistaken in my views about the

money lasting.


I was rather afraid of finding myself in Dorchester again, so tried to

persuade him to go round another way, but we at last slipped through

at night, and got to Winterborne, where we put up, going on next

morning in the coach to Bridport. I was again baffled for a time on

arriving there, for the coachman knew all about me, and remarked in a

way that was no doubt meant well, that it was but yesterday that my

father had got me out of the artillery. The soldier then asked me if I

was an apprentice, and I thought there seemed nothing to do but to

tell him I was: on which he promptly made me get down, and taking me

across some fields to his home, kept me there quietly for three days.


It seemed best after that to go on to Taunton in Somersetshire, where

we went to the barracks and saw the colonel, who on the soldier

telling him that he had brought me up as a recruit, asked me of what

trade I was. I replied that I was a labourer, which he said was all

right, for labourers made the best soldiers: but he could only give me

two and a half guineas bounty: at which point we parted from him, and

went to try the recruiting sergeant of the Marines, who promised us

sixteen guineas bounty when I arrived at the Plymouth headquarters.

This did not suit my conductor, however, as there was nothing for him

after paying my coach expenses, so he asked me what I intended to do,

and for his part advised me to go back to my master, saying he would

not mind the expenses he had gone to for me. But as I had by this time

destroyed the letter, I preferred going back to the Fortieth Regiment,

so we went and again saw the colonel, who gave my companion two

guineas, and sent me into barracks.


Next day I received my clothes, and in about a week more was sworn in

before a magistrate, receiving my bounty at the same time. Very

shortly afterwards orders came for the regiment to march to

Winchester, where we remained for about a month without anything of

any note occurring. I began to drill twice a day directly I joined,

and soon learnt the foot drill, after which I was put on to musketry



From Winchester we removed to Portsmouth, where we lay for a week, and

were then ordered to Bexhill barracks in Sussex, where our First

battalion was lying, and on our arrival a number of men were drafted

out of our battalion, which was the Second, into the First, to make it

a thousand strong, myself being one of the number. Then orders came

for us to proceed to Portsmouth to embark on foreign service, our

country being at the time at war with France and Spain.







     Embarkation of the regiment at Portsmouth -- Lawrence's feelings

     at the time beginning to be rather mixed -- Heartrending partings

     witnessed and somewhat moralized upon by him -- A few more words

     of advice, this time intended for apprentices -- Ample

     opportunity for self-introspection afforded during the first week

     of the voyage -- Incidents while becalmed -- Arrival at Rio, and

     entertainment of the troops by the Queen of Portugal -- Monte

     Video -- Disembarkation and first brushes with the enemy --

     Barbarity of the Spaniards -- Lawrence's feelings at last

     definitely uncomfortable -- Sir Samuel Auchmuty's dislike to

     finery in soldiers -- The town invested and subsequently stormed

     -- Lawrence in the forlorn hope -- Surrender of the Citadel.



We passed the night before our embarkation in the town: a night to

many perhaps the bitterest they had ever experienced, but to myself,

on the other hand, one mainly of joy, for I felt that I had at last

outwitted my pursuers. But though I cannot say that I was yet at all

repentant, it must not be thought that I felt altogether comfortable

on leaving my country with all my friends and relations in it, so

young as I was at the time: more especially when I considered the

errand we were on, and thought that I might never return to see them

again, knowing that they had not the slightest idea of where I was. I

naturally felt rather timid, as all young recruits must feel on

entering so soon on foreign service as I then found myself obliged to



But the worst and most disheartening spectacle of all was in the

morning when the bugle sounded for the assembly of the regiment; for

only about six women to a company of a hundred men being allowed to go

with us, many who were married had to leave wives and children behind,

with the thought that it might never be their lot to see them again.

When the order was given to embark, the scene was quite heartrending:

I could not see a dry eye in Portsmouth, and if the tears could have

been collected, they might have stocked a hospital in eye-water for

some months. Husband and wife, father and child, young man and

sweetheart, all had to part, and perhaps none were more affected than

the last, though with least cause: it indeed was dreadful to view.


I myself was much affected, but it was at the woes of others, for I

had not one to throw so much as a parting glance at myself; and thus,

amid the cheers of the crowd, and with the band playing the tune of

"The Girl I left behind me," we embarked.


Then I felt quite freed from my pursuers; but in getting out of the

frying-pan I soon found myself into the fire, for as it afterwards

proved I had many men to deal with more difficult than even my old

master had been. Thus it is that many are apt to dislike and leave

their employment through trifles, and in the search for a better often

only get a worse one, much to their disappointment.


The next day we drew out of Portsmouth harbour on our route to South

America, and sea-sickness soon commencing on board, I was, the worse

luck for myself, one of the number that succumbed to it. This lasted

for nearly a week, during the whole of which time we scarcely ate

anything; but when we got better, I think our appetites were such that

we could have readily finished a donkey with a hamper of greens.


We had good weather until we reached the tropics, when a dead calm

followed for a fortnight. As we were nearly upon the Equinoctial line,

the usual ceremony of shaving took place, which was no doubt very

amusing to those who escaped by treating the sailors to a bottle of

rum, or those who had crossed the Line before; but to us on whom the

barber, who was the sailor who had crossed the Line most often,

operated, it was not so pleasant. For the satisfaction of some who may

not quite understand the method of that interesting custom, I will

give the routine, at least as it happened on board our ship, though I

cannot altogether say whether the same is pursued universally, A large

tub of water was placed on deck, and each one who was to be performed

on, sat in turn on the edge; then the barber stepped forward and

lathered his face all over with tar and grease, and with a piece of

iron hoop as a razor scraped it off again; after which he pushed him

backwards into the tub, leaving him to crawl out anyhow and sneak off

to clean himself. All passed off very well, however, as there was

plenty of rum provided to drink from those officers and men who were

more disposed to join in the pay than the play.


During the calms, we amused ourselves fishing for dolphins, and

practising for the first time with ball-cartridge, a bottle being

corked and flung overboard as far as possible to serve as a target,

and a dollar being offered to the first man who could break it, each

one firing once. No one broke it, but I got a glass of grog from the

major for being the nearest; so near that I made the bottle spin

round. The major remarked that if I went so close as that to a

Spaniard I should make him shake; and he likewise asked me what trade

I was in before I joined the army. As I knew I was too far from

England now to be sent back, I told him that I was a builder's

apprentice; and he only said, "Well done, my boy, so you prefer

knocking down houses in the enemy's country to putting them up in your

own?" Certainly at this moment we were having an easy place, but there

was many a time afterwards when I should like to have been given the

choice of laying bricks again.


After spending about a fortnight in this way, a fair wind blew up, and

we proceeded on our voyage. We called in at Rio Janeiro, the capital

of the Brazilian Empire, lying upon the western side of the entrance

to a fine bay which forms the harbour. Our chief object for putting in

there was to take in water and provisions; and whilst we were anchored

there we went on shore, and the Queen of Portugal reviewed us. Next

day she sent a quantity of onions and pumpkins on board as a present,

which we found very acceptable. We stayed there about a fortnight,

sailing on next further south to Maldonado, the rendezvous of the

fleet, whence after being joined by five thousand troops under Sir

Samuel Auchmuty, the whole fleet moved on to Monte Video and anchored.


We lost no time on our arrival there, but early the next morning

boats were ordered alongside the troopships to convey us on shore,

which movement, as the enemy was on the banks about fifteen thousand

strong to receive us, put rather a nasty taste into our mouths, there

seeming nothing but death or glory before us. The signal was hoisted

from the admiral's ship, and we started for the shore amid the fire of

the enemy's artillery. They killed and wounded a few of our men, and

sank some of the boats, but as soon as we struck the shore, we jumped

out, and forming line in the water, fired a volley and charged, soon

driving them from their position on the bank. We found even as early

as then that Spaniards were not very difficult to encounter. In case

of a retreat, our boats were still within our reach, but having gained

the victory, we had no need of them, stopping where we were on the

banks all night.


Some field-pieces were next sent on shore, and likewise a number of

sailors with drag-ropes to work them, as we had no horses with us, and

up to this time no artillery. The country was rather favourable for

the sailors, being very level and mostly green pasture, so that they

kept along pretty easily, seeming just in their glory, all this being

new work to them. After some little firing from the cannon the enemy

retreated into the town, which was well fortified. We placed an

outlying picket of some three hundred men to watch the enemy's

manoeuvres, while the body of our army encamped in the rear in a line

stretching from sea to sea, so that the town standing upon a

projecting piece of land, all communication from the mainland was cut

off. The country around meanwhile abounded with ducks, geese, turkeys,

fowls, and plenty of sheep and bullocks, which it may be made sure our

men found oftentimes very providential.


On the third day of our encampment the Spaniards sallied out of the

town to surprise our picket, which being overpowered was obliged to

retreat, leaving two grenadiers wounded on the field, whom the

Spaniards much to our horror deliberately cut into pieces. But on the

body of our army coming up and charging them, a terrible slaughter

ensued on their retreat to the town, which amply repaid us for our two

grenadiers; as far as I am able to state, there could not have been

less than three thousand killed and wounded, for the next day we had

actually to bury two thousand of them. Our loss was a mere nothing.


I remember that I happened to be placed that night on sentry at the

road leading to the town, and not far from a hole where we had buried

five or six hundred of the enemy. It was the most uncomfortable two

hours' sentry I had ever spent as yet, and I kept my eyes more on the

place where the dead were than on the road I was placed to watch, not

having altogether forgotten the absurd ghost stories of my own

country. I in a way began to think, too, that I had done a good many

things I should have liked not to, and to regret for the first time

leaving my apprenticeship, my father, mother, and friends, to follow a

life so dangerous as I now found this to be, with nothing to expect,

as I thought, but to be myself numbered with the slain. I soon became

more hardened, however, as I was more and more mixed up in similar or

worse affairs than these slight brushes with a weak enemy had proved

to be. However, at this juncture I took the opportunity to send my

first letter home, so as to satisfy the folks there of my whereabouts,

though I kept from them the more perilous part of my story.


We reported to the general the circumstances of the Spaniards'

barbarity to our wounded comrades, and the answer he gave was that we

were to repay them in their own coin. I may mention here that we all

thought Sir Samuel a most excellent commander. He always delighted

most in a good rough-looking soldier with a long beard and greasy

haversack, who he thought was the sort of man most fit to meet the

enemy. It was chiefly owing to his dislike to dandyism that wearing

long hair with powder, which was the fashion then for the smart

soldier, was done away with soon after we landed in the enemy's

country; of course also partly because it was so difficult to get the



We never found the Spaniards sally out of the town after this to

engage us, as I expect they did not much like the warm reception they

had received. We set to work building up batteries and breastworks,

some three hundred of us being sent to cut down a copse of peach-trees

that was near to make gabions and fascines to form them with. When our

fortifications were completed, which was in a very few days, we began

bombarding the town, for which purpose we had brought up our

twenty-four pounders from the men-of-war. After about four days' play

we made a breach by knocking down the gate and part of the wall, which

was six feet thick, and though the enemy repaired it at night with a

quantity of bullocks' hides filled with earth, next morning as early

as two o'clock we advanced to storm the town.


Captain Renny of ours commanded the forlorn hope. The ladders were

placed against the hides of earth, and we scaled them under a heavy

fire from the Spaniards. We found the earth better stuff to encounter

than stone, and though our poor captain fell in the breach whilst

nobly leading on his men, we succeeded in forcing our way into the

town, which was soon filled with the reinforcements that followed us.

We drove the enemy from the batteries, and massacred with sword and

bayonet all whom we found carrying arms: the general's orders being

not to plunder or enter any house, or injure any woman, child, or man

not carrying arms, or fire a shot until daylight. On our approach to

the gunwharf of the town, we found some twenty or thirty negroes

chained to the guns, whom we spared and afterwards found very useful,

chiefly in burying the dead.


When the heat of the fighting was subsided, the drums beat to assembly

in the square, and orders were then given for the massacre to be

stayed, but that all the prisoners were to be taken that we could lay

our hands on. Our troops were accordingly despatched to the forts and

batteries, and nearly three thousand prisoners were taken; the

governor of the town giving himself up with all the forts except the

citadel, where there was a separate general in command. The governor

said he had nothing to do with this, so Sir Samuel sent a flag of

truce to know if the commander would give the place up. The answer

being "No," three or four riflemen were placed on a tower sufficiently

high and near to the citadel for the purpose of, if possible, picking

out the general and shooting him. This was soon effected, for on his

appearing for a walk on the ramparts in his full uniform, one of the

men shot him dead: and when the Spaniards found that they had lost

their commander, they soon became disheartened, and lowering the

drawbridge, came out of the citadel and gave themselves up. Part of

our troops immediately took possession, pulling down the Spanish

colours and hoisting the English flag from the town and citadel in

their stead. We took about four thousand prisoners in all, who were

sent on board ship; but where they were taken to afterwards I am not

able to state.







     Incidents during the stay at Monte Video -- The beguiling of

     Goodfellow -- A man hanged and then condemned to be transported

     -- Matrimonial designs of a Spanish father frustrated -- Advance

     to and occupation of Colonia -- Heroic conduct of a tallow

     chandler -- He proves of service in more ways than one --

     Expedition to San Pedro -- A battle with a hot breakfast at the

     end -- Narrow escape of Lawrence from being shot -- Unfortunate

     results of a combination of booty.



Now that we had got possession of a fine town, we could lie up

comfortably, only having to put out three or four hundred men on

picket round the walls and see that the gates of the town were closed

every night at sunset and not opened till daylight in the morning, and

then feeling that we could make ourselves quite at home. The

inhabitants were meanwhile not altogether deprived of their

livelihood, as our general issued a proclamation that they should open

their shops and carry on their business as usual: and if any declined

to open, he was kind enough to send parties to do it for them.


During the time that we lay there, which I should think was at least

five months, the only things that occurred that could be called out of

the way were, I am sorry to say, of rather an unpleasant nature. One

thing was that a sergeant and corporal of the Spanish army came in

disguise and tried to enlist any of our men who would join their

service; and unfortunately a sergeant named Goodfellow, one of my own

regiment, accepted their proposals, tempted by the heavy bounty they

offered. But while passing out of the town in disguise with the

Spaniards, he was met and recognized by the general himself and his

staff: a most unlucky encounter for the three runaways, for they were

brought back again and put under charge immediately, and a

court-martial ordered on them next day. Our colonel, however, implored

so hard for our sergeant's life on account of the regiment's late

good conduct in the field, that the general granted it, and changed

his sentence to one of transportation for life: but the Spaniards were

not quite so leniently dealt with, for they were tried and hanged, to

make sure that they could not repeat their mischievous practices.


We also found among the prisoners an Irishman who had somehow got away

from us over on to the wrong side, and had been fighting against us.

He was tried and sentenced to be hanged, and we all had to march up

next day to witness his execution and take example from it. But his

life was not destined to end here, for the rope was not altogether a

strong one, and he was fortunate enough when he fell to break it.

Directly his feet touched ground, he begged hard for mercy: and the

rope had made such a terrible mark on his neck that I suppose the

general thought he had been hanged enough: so he was sent into

hospital, and when he recovered, transported for the rest of the life

that had thus been given back to him. While he was on his way down the

town to go on board the vessel, I should think that if he had one

dollar given him, he had at least half a peck, though I do not expect

they would be much use to him where he was going to. I never heard any

more of him, but I don't suppose many men could say that they had been

hanged and then transported afterwards.


Another case of desertion was that of an officer's servant, who went

away with the greater part of his master's clothes, taking with him

likewise a Spanish lady; he was lucky enough to get off safe, and

nothing was heard of him afterwards. This was not at all a rare

temptation, though, that was put in our soldiers' way; for I was

myself offered a fortune by a Spanish gentleman, together with his

daughter, if I would desert and remain in the country. Whenever he met

me about he would treat me to anything I liked to name, which I

sometimes found very acceptable, and he would often give me money as

well, in hopes of gaining me over in time. He had more chances of

making up to me, for I forgot to mention that I had received a slight

wound in the left leg in storming the town, which kept me limping

about and partially disabled from duty for nearly a fortnight; but I

don't think he would have minded his daughter not marrying me in

particular, so long as he could persuade some one. But he happened one

day to leave his horse tied up close to our main guard while he went

into a kind of public-house, and occupied himself treating some of our

men; and the fact being discovered by those outside that his stirrups

were of solid gold, when he came out again one of them was missing. It

must have weighed at least a pound, so naturally he thought it worth

while reporting the circumstance to the colonel, and a search was

made; but no clue could be found to the missing stirrup, so he had to

ride away as best he could with only the other one; so he only came

off a loser in the end, and he never got his daughter married after



After staying in the town for the time stated, a thousand of us were

despatched up the river Rio de la Plata to a small place called

Colonia, where an army of Spaniards about four or five thousand strong

was lying. We landed with ease, and the enemy retreated out of the

place after firing a few shots, leaving it in our hands, so that we

again found ourselves for a time in comfortable quarters. We placed

pickets of two or three hundred men round the place, and fixed a

_chevaux de frise_ in the gate, formed of very sharp and pointed

swords stuck very thickly into a beam which was made to turn on its

axis: rather an awkward instrument to face if one is not used to it.

Duty at this place was rather hard, owing to there being so few of us,

and such a number on picket or at work building some batteries for our

better protection.


At the picket-house, which was some distance from the town, there

lived a soap-boiler and tallow-chandler, who was very kind to us while

we were there on duty, killing a bullock almost every night for our

use, as he only required the skin and tallow, and any one may suppose

that two hundred hungry men knew what to do with the rest of it. An

incident took place during our stay at his house which will show how

well disposed he was towards us. We had passed a very quiet week

there, when one night the Spaniards passed our picket secretly in the

darkness, fired a volley into the town, and then immediately

retreated. Our picket only just managed to get through safely into the

town, leaving one of our men asleep in the picket-house, and he must

certainly have met his death if he had been caught there singly; but

the tallow-chandler, though himself a Spaniard, concealed him under a

quantity of dry hides while the enemy were scouring the place in

search of stragglers, and so saved his life. In consequence of this

surprise, still heavier duty was afterwards put upon us, the picket

having to be augmented to prevent further annoyance.


Two or three days after this had occurred the tallow-chandler was sent

for to join the Spanish army, no doubt because their general suspected

him of favouring the English; but he would not go until he had

obtained our colonel's advice, which was that he should go by all

means, and if he could conveniently come back with full particulars of

the enemy's strength he should be rewarded. As far as I can remember,

he had been away about ten days, when he again made his appearance

with the requisite information. What reward he got I cannot say, but

as the result of his tidings, about two or three days afterwards we

were called under arms at midnight and supplied with half a pound of

beef for each man; the order then being given to return to our

lodgings for two hours, and at the end of that time to fall in again.

Meanwhile a number of sailors came from on board our ships to take

charge of the town during our absence, we being now bound for some

place as yet unknown to us.


A little after two in the morning we left the town with an Indian for

our guide. We asked in the best manner that we could where we were

going to, but all we could understand from him was that we were on the

way to fight some Spaniards, which of course we had pretty well

guessed before, and that we should have some four or five thousand of

them to encounter. This last bit of news made us think that we were

going to have hard nuts to crack, but we found them a very cowardly

sort of folk to deal with, for after marching some five or six miles,

we despatched skirmishing parties, who fell in with their picket and

took a few prisoners, and soon made the others retreat without doing

anything further than to send up some rockets to alarm the body of the



We marched on still further till we came nearly up to them, when we

found a river in our way; fortunately it was not very deep, so we

waded through it under a fire from the Spanish cannon, which killed

two of our men while in the act of crossing; and as soon as we were

over we formed line and advanced towards the enemy, who lay on some

fine rising ground in our front. They had some few pieces of cannon

with them, and opened the first fire with both cannon and musketry,

but every shot seemed to rise over our heads, and I don't think that

volley killed a man. We were up and at them like dragons, wounding and

taking their general with about a hundred and fifty other prisoners;

likewise a stand of colours, three pieces of cannon, and their

baggage. Moreover, we found a nice breakfast cooking for us in the

shape of fowls, geese, turkeys, beef, rice, and _calavancos_, (though

the latter were rather too warm with cayenne pepper and garlic,) all

of which the enemy had had to leave in his hurry, and which came in

very acceptably at the end of a long march.


The colonel ordered everything to be taken from the prisoners we had

made, as that was how he had been served himself when he had been

taken prisoner at Buenos Ayres, so we set to clearing them of all they

possessed, their money, which amounted to about two thousand dollars,

their clothes, and even their boots. I had a very narrow escape while

the plunder was going on. I entered one of the enemy's storehouses, at

one end of which a quantity of bullocks' hides were lying, at a

sufficient distance from the wall to allow a man to pass or hide

behind them; and there beside the heap stood a Spaniard whom I knew

well, as he had sold cakes to us while we were at Colonia, and who now

offered me a pot of honey to eat. I had my misgivings, however, so

made motion for him to eat first, for fear of poison; and at the same

time, casting my eye to the left, I saw a Spaniard emerge from between

the hides and the wall with a pistol, which he levelled at me. I

became pretty active, as may be supposed under the circumstances, and

managed to guard it off; but the shot whizzed very close to my head

nevertheless, which made me very much enraged with the man, and

determined he should not escape. Unfortunately for him, one of our

dismounted cavalry, an Irishman, came in, and on my telling him there

was a Spaniard behind the hides, who had just fired a pistol at me,

"Tare an' 'ounds," says he, "I'll fetch him out; you stand at one end

to stop him with your bayonet while I drive him out." So Paddy went

round with his sword, and after a little exercise behind, "Look out

comrade," he sang out, "he's coming;" and sure enough I skewered him

to the wall by driving my bayonet right through his body, while Paddy

came out and finished him by splitting his head nearly in two with his

heavy sword, remarking as he did it, "Bad luck to ye, I don't think

ye'll ever shoot another Englishman, or Irishman either." The other

man had meanwhile made off.


We had taken amongst other things about twenty barrels of gunpowder

and a quantity of cigars, which latter, owing to the carelessness of

one man, proved to be more plague than profit; for whilst most of us

were smoking, one of the company, going near the powder, happened to

let a spark fall from his cigar, which resulted in twelve men being

blown into the air: and though none were killed on the spot, they were

so frightfully burnt that several died on reaching Colonia. I believe

all that we lost actually killed by the enemy's hand were the two men

who fell in crossing the river. We gave ten dollars to each of the

widows of the men killed, and the rest of the prize-money was divided.







     Return to Colonia -- General Whitelock assumes the command of the

     army in the Plate, and a movement is made on Buenos Ayres --

     Studied insolence on the part of certain Indian natives --

     Remarkable value attached by them to a British head -- Their

     eventual punishment -- The troops effect an easy entrance into

     Buenos Ayres, but, for reasons unknown to the narrator, retreat

     almost immediately and not very creditably -- Return to Monte

     Video and final departure from the Plate -- Terrific storm on the

     way home -- Inconvenient mishap to a soldier -- Christmas in

     Cork Cove.



As we had effected all that was wanted at San Pedro, which was the

name of the place where we had been carrying on these operations, we

returned to Colonia, dragging back the guns laden with our wounded,

and taking with us the prisoners, who had to walk along barefooted, as

we had availed ourselves of their boots. On our arrival at Colonia our

sailors saluted us when they saw the number of our prisoners and the

three pieces of cannon we had taken, giving "three cheers for the

brave soldiers." The prisoners were then sent on board a ship that was

lying in the river, and an outlying picket having been posted as

usual, the rest of us remained comfortably in the town. Next day the

colonel gave orders for everything belonging to the prisoners, such as

clothes, &c., to be brought out, offering a fair price for them to be

returned to their proper owners, which showed of what a good

disposition he really was: only he had allowed us to take the things

before as an example.


We remained here about a month this time, when General Whitelock came

out with a reinforcement and took the command from Sir Samuel

Auchmuty, and soon afterwards, some troops being left in charge of

Monte Video, the rest proceeded to Buenos Ayres, calling at Colonia on

the way to pick up our little squad. We landed some miles before

coming to Buenos Ayres, intending, if possible, to storm the back of

the town, as it was strongly fortified on the side towards the coast.

We were thus obliged to march inland and form encampments, the first

of which was situated a little way from where we landed.


An incident took place here, which was attended by the death of two

men, a corporal and a private, and likewise the very narrow escape of

a second private. They were engaged in plundering one of the Indian

huts, when the inhabitants fell on them armed, and, catching the

corporal round the neck with a lasso, soon dragged him away, at the

same time knocking the private down and stabbing him; the other

private only escaped back to the regiment after receiving a

sabre-wound which carried the skin and hair off the back of his head.

This was a great glory to the natives; they stuck the corporal's head

on a pole and carried it in front of their little band when on the

march. They also made use of the rifle and ammunition they had taken

from him to fire at times into our camp, but fortunately it was a very

harmless sort of practice.


Next day we again resumed our march, encamping again at night. I

remember that night was very foggy, and an officer and some men having

gone out in search of bullocks for the supply of the army, the officer

was very nearly lassoed by an Indian who came on him suddenly in the

darkness. Fortunately he had the presence of mind to ride after him,

which saved his life, for so the Indian could not pull him over; and

then he managed to cut the lasso with his sword.


As we marched along on our next day's journey, about two hundred

Indians kept following us, the foremost of them wearing our dead

corporal's jacket, and carrying his head--I do not exactly know for

what reason, but perhaps they thought a good deal more of a dead man's

head than we should feel disposed to do. We went on for some distance

through a great many orange-gardens, till we came to a lane thickly

hedged in on both sides, which was entered by a gate, and there, after

the body of our army had passed through, some few men, including

myself, waited in ambush for the Indians, having a reserve placed a

short distance down the lane in case of a combat. The Indians soon

approached, but seemed to have some misgivings, though we could not

exactly understand what they said. There being only a few of us, not

quite twenty in all, I rather shook in my shoes on seeing their

number; but we soon found there was very little occasion for this, for

on our firing directly the front party had passed the gate, killing

two of them and wounding and capturing their chief, who was the one

who was so proud of his head, the rest fled for their lives, not

liking the smell and much less the taste of our gunpowder. We picked

up the wounded man and carried him, and left him, more dead than

alive, in a neighbouring village.


On nearing Buenos Ayres the Light Brigade was ordered on in front,

under the command of Colonel Pack, who soon succeeded in taking the

Bull Ring battery; for Buenos Ayres was much more easy to take than

Monte Video, as it was very slightly fortified towards the country.

There were some cannons placed at the end of each street, but they

proved a very small difficulty to be overcome, as there seemed nobody

efficient to work them, and after passing these, our soldiers were soon

in possession of the city. Then they hoisted the King's flag on a

convent and waited, expecting every minute that the body of our army

would come up; but instead of this, General Whitelock encamped about a

mile out of the town and remained there. If he had attended properly

to his business he would have followed up and relieved the brigade;

but as it was, the Spaniards rallied and overpowered it. I was with

the main body, and so was not able to enter the city to see what was

going on. We all fell under arms when we heard the muskets at work,

waiting for the general's orders to advance: but there we lay the

whole night, not doing a stroke, and next day we re-embarked for Monte

Video, having come to some terms, though we were ignorant of that at

the time.


We remained at Monte Video some two months longer, during which

interval the ships taken in the harbour were offered for sale, but the

inhabitants refusing to buy them, we loaded some ourselves with hides,

tallow, and cocoa, and the rest, which were not worth bringing home,

were towed out to the mouth of the harbour and set on fire. The

Spaniards had previously blown up a very fine frigate to prevent it

falling into our hands. Part of our army was then embarked for the

East Indies and the Cape of Good Hope, whilst we others went on an

expedition about a hundred miles up the Rio de la Plata to get fresh

water, and when we returned proceeded on our way homewards from that

part of the world.


The first part of our voyage was very pleasant, the troops in general

keeping very healthy; but when we had sailed some distance, we had a

dead calm for a considerable time, which made us much longer on our

voyage than we had thought for, and consequently our water supply ran

very short, and had to be served out in allowances of half a pint a

day. A small supply, however, fortunately came before long. Our

captain, seeing a cloud in the distance, foretold that we were going

to have a thunderstorm, and ordered the scupper-holes to be stopped,

and all except the watch to remain below. I happened to be one of the

watch at the time, and well I remember how it very shortly after began

to thunder and lighten, the rain falling in torrents for two or three

hours; it was the heaviest thunderstorm I had ever witnessed. We baled

up some twenty or more casks of water, which was none the better,

perhaps, for there being pigs, fowls, geese, and turkeys all over the

deck, but still was very acceptable to us in our parched state, as

till that we had had to cook our food and wash ourselves in salt water



During the storm our mainmast was struck by the lightning, which split

a piece off it from top to bottom, but fortunately did not disable it;

but a sad mishap befell one of our men while sitting at mess at the

time, for he was struck dead, his shirt being burnt in places like

tinder, and his mess-tin being likewise turned black, while the top of

a bayonet that was standing close to the unfortunate man was melted

like lead. The blow had shaken our little bark so terribly that the

captain ordered the pumps to be tried; fortunately there was no

leakage to be found, but the lightning must have got well down below,

for on opening the main hatchway the sulphur came up enough to

suffocate any one.


After the storm, the calm still continued, and we had to amuse

ourselves as best we could with fishing; a few days after a breeze

sprang up, but it was foul for England, and we had to knock about till

a more favourable one blew up, which finally landed us in the Cove of

Cork. We spent the Christmas of 1807 on board, sending on shore for

raisins, flour, fat, and beer, and so being enabled to enjoy ourselves

very comfortably.







     The troops kept in Ireland -- Ordered to Spain to fight new

     opponents in behalf of their late ones -- Land in Mondego Bay and

     advance to Vimeira -- A light repast interrupted by a heavy

     battle -- Battle of Vimeira -- Preliminary skirmishing --

     Lawrence's first experience in fighting the French -- A good

     front-rank man -- Defeat of the French and advance on Lisbon --

     The French evacuate the city -- Lawrence's impressions of Lisbon

     -- Sir Arthur Wellesley made commander-in-chief -- The regiment

     invalided for a time -- Attempt to join Sir John Moore frustrated

     -- Seville -- Lawrence's first offence -- He is court-martialled

     for it and flogged -- Moral reflections on the same.



We had already laid in our sea stock in preparation to start for

England, when we found ourselves disappointed of our hopes, for orders

came for us to land in Ireland; and we had to march to Cork and thence

to various other places for six months, nothing of any particular note

happening during the while; and at the end of it, orders again came

for us to embark for Portugal, to drive the French from there, and

from the Spanish dominions. Thus after we had been in open war against

the Spaniards, who for the time had been in alliance with the French,

or rather had been forced to be so, now that Buonaparte had overrun

their own country and kindled hatred against himself, these same

Spaniards had made peace with us, and sent to us for assistance to

drive him out of their country: so that we had to go and fight for the

very nation we had been a few months before opposing in Monte Video,

Buenos Ayres, and Colonia.


After we had all embarked we had still to lie in Cork Harbour, waiting

for the English fleet, and then we sailed from the Irish coast, about

twelve thousand strong, under Sir Arthur Wellesley, on the 12th of

July, 1808. We first touched at Corunna to make arrangements with the

Spaniards, and their advice being to land in Portugal, we went to

Mondego Bay, near the town of Figueras, where we landed, leaving our

baggage on board. After about five days' march we were joined by

General Spencer, and next day our advanced guard had a slight

engagement with the enemy at Rorica. Thence we marched on to Vimeira,

and were joined by Generals Anstruther and Acland with more

reinforcements, and Sir Hugh Dalrymple took the head command from Sir

Arthur Wellesley.


The village of Vimeira stood in a valley with a fine range of hills to

the westward, and a ridge of heights to the east. Our brigades were

stationed on the mountains to the west, whilst our cavalry was posted

in the valley, and General Anstruther's brigade lay to the east.


On the first night of our encampment there, two of my comrades and

myself were strolling over the hills together, when we fell in with a

hive of bees, weighing I should think at least a hundredweight, which

we carried back into the camp: not without difficulty, however, for we

found them very uncivil passengers to carry, and our faces and hands

were fearfully stung; but our honey and grapes, for we had profited

too from being encamped in some very fine vineyards, paid us for this

a little. Next morning we proceeded to make our breakfast off the same

materials, but we were not destined to finish very quietly, for in the

midst of our meal we were disturbed by the near approach of the enemy,

and were immediately ordered under arms.


The right of our line was engaged at least two hours before a general

engagement took place on our side, which was the left, but we were

skirmishing with the enemy the whole time. I remember this well, on

account of a Frenchman and myself being occupied in firing at each

other for at least half an hour without doing anyone any injury; but

he took a pretty straight aim at me once, and if it had not been for a

tough front-rank man that I had, in the shape of a cork-tree, his shot

must have proved fatal, for I happened to be straight behind the tree

when the bullet embedded itself in it. I recollect saying at the time,

"Well done, front-rank man, thee doesn't fall at that stroke," and

unfortunately for the Frenchman, a fellow-comrade, who was lefthanded,

came up to me very soon afterwards, and asked me how I was getting on.

I said badly, and told him there was a Frenchman in front, and we had

been trying to knock each other over for some time, without either of

us having been able to succeed; on which he asked me where he was,

that he might have a try at him. I pointed out the thicket behind

which the Frenchman was, and he prepared his rifle so as to catch him

out in his peeping manoeuvres, but not without himself, as well as I,

being well covered by my old front-rank man. By-and-by Mr. Frenchman

again made his peep round the bush, but it was his last, for my

comrade, putting his rifle to his left shoulder, killed him at the

first shot.


After we had been thus employed in skirmishing for some time, a large

body of French made their appearance in our front. Our artillery

greeted them pretty sharply, ploughing furrows through them with ball

and throwing them into a confused state, after which our columns

advanced under General Spencer, our cannon still playing over our

heads, until we got within a short distance of the enemy, when we

fired and charged them, driving them from the position they had

occupied after some very severe fighting well kept up for some time on

both sides, and capturing about seven pieces of cannon, with

ammunition waggons. The loss of the French at this place could not

have been much less than two thousand, though some have reported it

less and some more; but it is very hard to arrive at a just

calculation. Our loss was reported to have been about seven hundred.


After the battle was ended we marched on towards Lisbon, passing on

our way about a hundred and fifty carts laden with the enemy's

wounded. When we arrived at Lisbon we encamped, so that the French had

no means of communication with the city; as, our fleet lying in or

near the mouth of the harbour, and our army stopping all approach from

the land, the French in the city were blocked in. On the first night

of our encampment the inhabitants illuminated the part where we lay.

We were not destined, however, to be outside the city long, for on the

leaders of our army and the French coming to some terms, the French

left with the honours of war, and gladly embarked from the harbour in

September. These were the very troops with whom at a later period we

had to contend.


When the enemy had left Lisbon we took up our quarters in the city,

amid the joy and enthusiasm of the inhabitants, who shouted in triumph

as the French left, and held illuminations even on the vessels in the

harbour for several successive nights afterwards.


Lisbon then on every side still exhibited marks of that terrible

earthquake which almost completely destroyed it in the year 1755. It

was situated on the right bank of the Tagus, near its mouth, which

forms a very fine harbour; and it stood chiefly on very precipitous

hills, of which the highest was occupied by the fine castle of Saint

George, which was indeed the principal object that attracted the eye

anywhere from the city. The great squares contained some magnificent

edifices, noteworthy for the fineness of their pillars. The streets

were narrow and winding and dirty, and indeed after the French had

left the whole city was in a most desolate state; but the general view

of the city and its environs from the harbour at a distance was very

beautiful, the sides of the hills being clothed with plantations and

numberless vineyards, and the buildings extending for a mile and a

half or two miles along the coast.


Sir Hugh Dalrymple, Sir Arthur Wellesley, and some other of the chief

leaders of our army were then recalled to England to communicate the

circumstances of the terms that had been arrived at in Portugal

between the two armies: as the rulers, and indeed all classes in

England received the first reports of them with indignation. This was

the reason that the inquiry was made, of which the fruits were that

Sir Arthur Wellesley was decided on as the proper person to take the

head command of our troops in the Peninsula.


During our stay in Lisbon our regiment fell ill and was obliged to be

returned unfit for service, which state of things lasted about two

months. But as soon as Sir Arthur Wellesley returned as

commander-in-chief, we were ordered into Spain, in company with five

thousand Spaniards, to join Sir John Moore's army. We had a long and

tedious march until we reached a place called Seville, where we

encamped for several weeks, on account of Sir John Moore having been

obliged to retreat; and the French cutting off our communication, we

had to proceed to Cadiz and there embark again for Lisbon.


I must here relate a circumstance which took place before I proceeded

from Seville, which, although not very creditable to myself, is of too

great importance as an event in my life to be omitted. I absented

myself without leave from guard for twenty-four hours, and when I

returned I found I had jumped into a fine scrape, for I was

immediately put into the guard-room, and a drum-head court-martial was

ordered on me. It was the first offence to cause one to be held on me,

but that did not screen me much, and I was sentenced to four hundred

lashes. I felt ten times worse on hearing this sentence than I ever

did on entering any battlefield; in fact, if I had been sentenced to

be shot, I could not have been more in despair, for my life at that

time seemed of very little consequence to me. My home and my

apprenticeship days again ran in my head, but even these thoughts soon

lost themselves as I neared the spot where my sentence was to be

carried out. I found the regiment assembled all ready to witness my

punishment: the place chosen for it was the square of a convent. As

soon as I had been brought in by the guard, the court-martial was read

over me by the colonel, and then I was ordered to strip, which I did

firmly and without using any of the help that was offered me, as I had

by that time got hardened to my lot. I was then lashed to the

halberds, and the colonel gave the order for the drummers to commence,

each one having to give me twenty-five lashes in turn. I bore it very

well until I had received a hundred and seventy-five, when I became so

enraged with the pain that I pushed the halberds, which did not stand

at all firm, on account of their being planted on stones, right across

the square, amid the laughter of the regiment. The colonel, I suppose,


thinking then that I had had sufficient, ordered, in the very words,

"the sulky rascal down," and perhaps a more true word could not have

been spoken, as indeed I was sulky, for I did not give vent to a

single sound the whole time, though the blood ran down my trousers

from top to bottom. I was unbound and the corporal hove my shirt and

jacket over my shoulders and conveyed me to the hospital, presenting

about as miserable a picture as I possibly could.


Perhaps it was as good a thing for me as could then have occurred, as

it prevented me from committing any greater crimes which might have

gained me other severer punishments and at last brought me to my

ruin; but for all that it was a great trial for me, and I think that a

good deal of that kind of punishment might have been abandoned with

great credit to those who ruled our army; for it is amazing to think

of four hundred lashes being ordered on a man young as I was, and

undergoing all the privations of a most sanguinary war, just for an

offence, and that the first, which might have been overlooked, or at

any rate treated with less punishment and a severe reprimand.







     Lawrence transferred into the Grenadier company -- The regiment

     embarks at Cadiz for Lisbon again in consequence of Sir John

     Moore's defeat at Corunna -- Hospitality of an English merchant

     -- March to join Sir Arthur Wellesley at Castello Branco -- The

     Spanish troops reviewed -- Lawrence's opinion of them -- Battle

     of Talavera -- Lawrence's opinion of the Spaniards justified --

     Severe fighting on the second day of the battle -- Friendliness

     between the wounded -- Final attack and repulse of the French --

     Horrible fate of some of the wounded -- Advance to Oropesa -- The

     Spanish General Cuesta deserts the wounded at Talavera -- March

     towards Badajoz -- Privations on the road -- Fresh supply of

     clothes at Badajoz -- Lawrence invalided to Elvas -- Is cured

     chiefly by reflecting on his manner of burial -- Returns to

     Badajoz -- Sir Arthur Wellesley made Viscount Wellington -- End

     of 1809.



I remained in hospital about three weeks, and on coming out I was

transferred from the Light into the Grenadier company.


As I before said, on leaving Seville, which I did in a pretty well

marked state, of which I bear the remembrances on my back to this day

upwards of fifty years since, we marched to Cadiz and encamped there,

intending to embark for Lisbon, Sir John Moore's army having been by

that time repulsed by sheer force of numbers, and himself killed at

Corunna. On that night an English wine-merchant asked permission to

give each man in our regiment a pint of wine and each woman half that

quantity, with a pound of bread apiece; and accordingly we were all

drawn up in line, and marched into a tremendous cellar, big enough,

had they been so disposed, to have admitted the whole regiment, with

two doors one at each end, at one of which we entered to receive our

share, and went out by the other. He likewise invited the officers to

dine with him; and so that night, after drinking the merchant's little

kindness, as we most of us did to pretty quick time, we slept a good

deal sounder.


Next day we embarked for Lisbon, and after landing there we proceeded

some miles up the country to join Sir Arthur's army in Castello

Branco, making up altogether about twenty thousand English and sixty

or eighty thousand Allies.


We then advanced across a fine plain, which I should think was more

famed for hares than anything else, for I never saw any place that

swarmed so with that kind of game. They were running in all

directions, and often even right into our lines, for they are stupid

animals when frightened, as they then were by the noise our men made;

and I managed to kill one with the muzzle of my musket, and sold it to

the captain of my company for a dollar.


The bands played each before its own regiment as we crossed the plain,

and Sir Arthur Wellesley took the opportunity of reviewing the Spanish

troops as they passed. They looked a fine enough set of men, but they

were fit for scarcely anything except to fall into disorder and

confusion, as we had already found when we had taken the field against

some of them at Monte Video, Colonia, and Buenos Ayres, the smell of

powder often seeming to cause them to be missing when wanted, either

from not having been properly disciplined, or else because they had

not good officers to command them; this, of course, now bringing the

brunt of most of the battles on us.


We often passed marks of the enemy's encampments, and even encamped at

or near the same places ourselves, as close as possible to some river

or large supply of water, a small quantity being of little use for the

purposes of a large body of men like our army, accompanied as it was,

too, by horses and wagons and such things. We never caught sight of

the enemy, however, till we got to Talavera, where we came to an

engagement with the French on the 27th and 28th of July, 1809. The

whole of our line there extended for about two miles, and at times the

whole of it was joining in the general engagement, which came more hot

upon us for the reason before described; a great number of the

Spaniards even throwing down their arms and fleeing, for which conduct

their general, Cuesta, ordered them to be decimated; but eventually,

on the entreaty of Sir Arthur Wellesley, only about forty of them were

killed. General Cuesta, however, really wanted quite as much leading

on as his men, as he was often very obstinate, and refused to fight

when called upon by Sir Arthur Wellesley.


After the first day's battle we encamped on the ground we then

occupied, but the French made another and unexpected attack on us at

night, and at one time had almost gained the heights; but we repulsed

them at last, though after that we had to lie on our arms, expecting

every minute to be again attacked. Some little altercation occurred

with the Spaniards very early in the morning, but it only lasted a

short time; however, about five or six o'clock the French columns were

seen in motion towards our left, and very soon afterwards they

ascended the height to attack us, and were only driven back by the

heavy fire of our musketry, leaving the ground strewn with their dead.

At eleven or twelve o'clock in the day the firing ceased, and a period

of truce was allowed for both armies to collect their wounded, and

convey them to the rear, where, as they lay often intermixed, a

friendly intercourse sprang up between them, the Allies and French

often going so far as to shake hands with each other.


At one or two o'clock the enemy again advanced and recommenced with a

heavy cannonade and an attack on the whole British lines, but after

some very brisk fighting on both sides we repulsed them for the third

time, and obliged them to retreat with a loss of some thousands and a

few pieces of cannon, the British loss being about a thousand killed

and three or four thousand wounded. A very dreadful occurrence

happened after the battle, for the long dry grass in which many of the

wounded were lying caught fire, and many were scorched to death before

assistance could be brought to convey them to hospital in Talavera. We

lay that night in much the same state as on that previous, expecting

to see our noble enemy again, but we were mistaken, for most of them

took themselves off during the night, and in the morning only their

rear-guard could be seen.


Next month commenced by Sir Arthur Wellesley leaving the Spanish

general Cuesta in charge of Talavera and the wounded, while on the

3rd he proceeded to Oropesa, where he expected to come up with and

engage Soult's army. But he had not been there long before he found

the obstinate Cuesta, upon hearing that the enemy was on his flank,

had abandoned Talavera, thus leaving nearly the whole of the British

wounded unprotected. The conduct of Cuesta in thus retreating and

abandoning the position and the charge entrusted to him, was almost

too much for Sir Arthur to bear, particularly as it was afterwards

found that there was no need for it, as the enemy was at some distance

off, and not in the least interfering with the Spanish army's

movements. So in this case we would have been much better without his

services altogether.


From Oropesa we advanced through a country abounding with

difficulties, the army suffering much during this march from the heat

of the weather, the long exposure, insufficient food, and bad roads,

and illness being very prevalent. Our provisions rarely exceeded two

pounds of meat a day; and sometimes a pint of wheat took the place of

one of the pounds of meat, with occasionally, but very rarely, a

little flour. Our way of cooking the wheat was to boil it like rice,

or sometimes, if convenient, we would crack the kernel between two

flat stones and then boil it, making a kind of thick paste out of it.

This having so little bread or other vegetable substance to eat with

our meat was one of the great causes of illness.


We halted at or near Val de la Casa as our next stage for Oropesa,

and two days after that at Deleitosa; and from there we were marched

to Xaracego, whence, through lack of provisions, we were obliged to

proceed to Badajoz, arriving there after being about a fortnight on

the road. On leaving Talavera our clothes had been completely

threadbare, and now, through having no change for so long we were

smothered with vermin. When we had been a little while in Badajoz,

however, we were supplied with new clothes, linen, blankets, and great

coats, our old ones being burnt; and more live stock was destroyed in

the process than there were troops in the country at the time.


Whilst we were staying at Badajoz, numbers of us fell sick daily, and

amongst them was unfortunately myself. We were conveyed to a

Portuguese town some four leagues from Badajoz, called Elvas, which

was the strongest fortified town in Portugal, being very little more

than two leagues from the frontier of Spain. It was situated at the

summit of a lofty hill, and at the other side of a valley was a still

higher hill, on the top of which was built another strong fort, the

two together being called Elvas. We invalids occupied the convents of

the town.


Our loss here through the sickness, which was some kind of fever, and

was increased through the want of doctors and medicine, was very

great, cartloads of the dead being carried out of the town every day

for interment in the ground kept for the purpose outside the

fortifications. I recovered sufficiently after about six weeks to be

able to get out a little on the ramparts, and there a fearful

spectacle often met my gaze, for the dead were brought out of the

convents completely naked, and after they had been pitched into carts

like so many pieces of wood, were carried out and put into holes

scarcely large enough to admit of such a number. This unpleasant

office of burying the dead fell chiefly on the Portuguese convicts,

and it was surprising to see with what readiness these men went to

work. They carried one body at a time, having the legs over their

shoulders, and the head dangling down behind them, and when they came

to the graves, on account of the piece of ground appropriated for the

burials being so small, they had to pack their burdens with the

greatest nicety. This sight soon cured me, as I thought what a narrow

escape I had had of being handled by these same men; and I was glad to

get back to my regiment at Badajoz as soon as possible.


Thus ended the proceedings of 1809. Sir Arthur Wellesley was, after

the battle of Talavera, raised to the rank of Viscount Wellington.







     The regiment billeted at Olivencia -- Curious astronomical

     conjunction -- Lawrence exemplifies the truth of an old proverb

     at the expense of his hosts, and draws down the wrath of the

     church on himself -- Succeeds more satisfactorily in the case of

     his comrade -- The army shifted to the valley of the Mondego --

     Lord Wellington's hopes in Almeida and Ciudad Rodrigo being

     disappointed, it falls back still further to Busaco -- Battle of

     Busaco -- Lawrence makes a capture, which may be regarded by some

     readers as emblematic.



At the beginning of 1810 we proceeded from Badajoz to Olivencia, and

were there billeted on the inhabitants, two or more in a house, as the

circumstances would permit. I remember one very curious thing which

occurred at this time, which was that the names of the drum-majors of

the three regiments that were collected in this place were Sun, Moon,

and Star, our regiment having the Moon, the Fifty-third the Sun, and

the Ninth the Star, so that if having the Sun, Moon, and Star fighting

for us was any help, they were there all ready.


I happened to be billeted with a comrade of the name of Lewis

Phillips, a Welshman, in a house occupied by a respectable but poor

man and his wife, whom we found on the whole very kindly meaning

towards us. Their occupation was that of labourers, and at this

particular season of the year they were employed in picking

olive-berries. Before going out to their work in the morning they

would prepare their supper; which, as it was then Lent, and they were

not allowed to eat meat, consisted, as far as I was able to observe,

of a mixture of greens, oil, cayenne pepper, and salt, which they

would leave on the embers in an earthenware jar to be cooked by the

time they came back; and as generally either myself or my comrade was

in the way, they would ask us to occasionally give it a stir. One day

after I had been there some little time, I was left as cook, and

feeling in rather a mischievous mood, I cut some of my meat up very

small--not much indeed, as may be supposed, out of the pound, which

was all that we then received--and put it into the jar; and by

nighttime it was so boiled and stirred that even I, who knew it was

there, could scarcely recognize it. On their return they were very

hungry and soon partook of their _caldo_, as they called it,

pronouncing it to be very good, and praising me as the best cook they

had had for some time, little suspecting what that same best cook had

put into it. I was foolish enough, though indeed I did not expect what

a bother I should throw up, to ask them then what they thought was in

their _caldo_, and when I told them there was meat in it, they

exclaimed they had eaten the Devil, or words to that effect in their

language, which we were beginning to understand pretty well by that

time after being so long in the country. When they had been and got

rid of all they had eaten for supper, they reported me to their priest

for making them eat meat in Lent contrary to the laws of their

religion; and on the priest coming to the house he condemned me for

ever, and prayed to them telling them not to take any notice, as it

was done against their will and by an ignorant Protestant.


They never liked me much afterwards, nor set me to watch their

_caldo_, and, as they were obliged to have me there still, managed to

make me rather uncomfortable; but this did not altogether debar me

from continuing my jokes, and more as I thought it was pretty well

time for Lewis to have his turn of it. It happened that Lewis

particularly disliked olive oil, and I was myself very fond of it,

and as we were very seldom on duty together, it used to fall to the

one off to cook and bring the other his meals to the guard. So one day

I pitched upon a plan by which to take Mr. Taffy in, he being on guard

and I the cook that day. I asked him what he would have for his

dinner, and he said some potatoes fried in butter, a piece of bread,

and his usual pint of wine: so I got some olive oil, and fried the

potatoes in that instead of in butter; and when his turn came for him

to be relieved for a time off sentry, took his meal to him, which,

coming as it did when he was very hungry, he was not long in lapping

up. I then asked him how he had enjoyed it; and he answered he had

never had a better meal in his life. I said, "Lewis, I thought you did

not like oil." "No, no more I do; there was no oil there." I told him

I had fried the potatoes in oil, but I could not make him believe it,

so at last I said if he was agreeable I would make another mess in the

same manner when we were both together at liberty. He consented, so

the first time we were both together to dinner I commenced my frying,

he being witness to the whole operation, and I found that I succeeded

better in my experiment with Lewis than with the worthy people of the

house, for after that he could eat as much oil as I could.


After we had stayed at Olivencia for some weeks, chiefly in order to

refresh ourselves after the long and tedious marches, warfare, and

illness to which for the last two years we had been subjected, Lord

Wellington removed his headquarters to Visen, and the army went for

the most part into cantonments on the valley of the Mondego. Lord

Wellington knew that his troops were then only strong enough for

defensive operations, and was therefore determined, unless strongly

reinforced, not to take rash measures; but on the enemy's fresh

invasion of Portugal he again shifted his headquarters to Celorico.

After that we moved on to another small place, called, as far as I am

able to remember, Guarda, near Almeida, about eight or ten leagues

from Ciudad Rodrigo.


Almeida was at that time garrisoned by some Portuguese troops

commanded by an English officer. The French had invested it, but Lord

Wellington expected that it would have been able to baffle the enemy

until the commencement of the rainy season, and would thus retard the

enemy's movements. Almeida was a town of very great strength, but

Massena opened fire on it about the 23rd of August, and it was obliged

to capitulate as soon afterwards as the 27th, a magazine containing

most of the ammunition having blown up, taking with it great part of

the town and the fortifications; the governor being thus disappointed

of his desire to detain the French any longer. In this sad accident

hundreds of the inhabitants and the soldiery, with many of the enemy,

who were assembled outside to watch the effect, were launched into

eternity either by the explosion itself or by the huge falling masses.

And not only did this misfortune occur, but Ciudad Rodrigo meanwhile

had fallen into the enemy's hands, and thus a way was opened for a

fourfold contest.


Owing to these repeated disappointments of Lord Wellington's plans, we

were again obliged to fall back into the valley of the Mondego,

crossing that river and taking up our position on the heights of

Busaco, situate about six leagues north-east of Coimbra. Our march was

one of great difficulty, owing to the heavy rains and bad roads; but

Lord Wellington did his best to provide against these as much as

possible by taking the best road; while, on the other hand, Massena,

who was following us up on his way to Lisbon, had taken the very

worst; and what was more, owing to ignorance of the country, had

little expected to meet a range of heights with, above all, us on the

top of them, ready to retard his progress as much as possible.


We arrived at Busaco about the centre of September, and on the 26th

our line was formed. Our division, under General Cole, occupied the

extreme left of the line, looking down on a flat country, where the

British cavalry were drawn up in reserve. The divisions of Generals

Hill, Leith, and Picton occupied the right of our line, with the first

division, commanded by Sir Bryant Spencer, in the centre. In the

meantime the French had taken up their position in front, and a

splendid view we had of their encampment from Busaco heights for a

time; but it was not destined to be for long that we were to witness

this fine sight, without mingling some of their best blood with ours,

for early on the morning of the 27th they were in active stir,

evidently in the full intention of storming our heights. We were

immediately ordered under arms, and ready, if necessary, to go into



Early in the morning the French made their appearance. The action

commenced on our right and centre, the heaviest fire keeping there the

whole time that the battle lasted, as the division I was in had but

slight brushes with them. The French must have lost in this engagement

some four or five thousand men, while we lost little more than a

thousand: but it must be borne in mind what an immense advantage we

had over them, as, being situated as we were on the heights, we could

witness their every movement. That night they retreated to their old

position, disheartened at the little success they had gained, or

rather at the actual defeat they had suffered, and not feeling

inclined to renew the contest next day: and some very slight

engagements were all that ensued, chiefly on the left where the light

infantry were.


Whilst strolling about one day on these heights I caught a fine cock,

which I tamed by tying him to my knapsack by the leg and carrying him

about with me, much to the amusement of my comrades; for after I had

had him about a fortnight, he became so tame that he would sit on my

knapsack quite quietly, without even the string to his leg. We named

him Tom, and I took to carrying him about everywhere, even on to the

battlefield; wherever my knapsack went, Tom went too, and when the

balls were whizzing about, which he did not seem altogether to like,

he would make that curious noise which many may have observed as such

which a bird like this would make when pursued or frightened. He

served, however, to while away many a long and dreary hour pleasantly

by his peculiar little ways, and we all became very fond of him: and

he grew quite fat on the many tit-bits he received from my comrades

and myself during our mess, it being quite marvellous to see how

regularly he went to each in turn for his contribution. And it was

still more curious to see how Tom was always ready for action on any

move of the knapsacks, and not only that, but how very seldom he made

any mistake as to which was the right one. However, certain it was

that after he had inhabited my knapsack for a little time he had made

sufficient marks on it that I could never mistake it for any other, so

perhaps he went by them as well as myself.







     March To Leiria -- Liberation of Nuns -- Retreat before the

     French to within the lines of Torres Vedras -- General flitting

     on the part of the population -- Pitiful scenes on the road --

     Lawrence and his comrades cantoned in a cellar at Patamara --

     They find a treasure -- The owner doesn't, and makes a

     disturbance -- Lawrence as an interpreter -- A game of cunning

     between officers and men, ending in a victory for the latter --

     Massena compelled to retreat to Santarem for want of supplies --

     The regiment receives its South American prize money, and is

     promptly put in the way to spend it.



On Lord Wellington finding that the French intended to alter their

route, and so escape this formidable height, he retreated towards

Lisbon himself, passing Coimbra, at which place the Portuguese took

some thousands of the French sick and wounded, together with some few

effective troops, who had been left to protect the hospital. From

Coimbra we proceeded farther south, having again to cross the Mondego,

which we did in the latter end of September, reaching Leiria on the

2nd of October.


On the march we passed a nunnery, where we halted for about a quarter

of an hour. A great many of the nuns were crowding the balconies to

watch us, and as the French were following us up pretty close, the

colonel ordered the doors to be broken open by a body of grenadiers,

which was soon done, myself being among the number told off for the

purpose. This was not carried out, however, without an accident, for

one of the women meanwhile fell from a balcony, owing to the crowded

state in which they were packed on it. The poor women seemed very glad

to get their liberty, for they came out as thick as a flock of sheep,

and a great many of them soon passed us bound for Lisbon, being

fearful of consequences if they took any other direction: as the

French were after us so near as to skirmish with our rear-guard,

which chiefly consisted of cavalry.


Lord Wellington had indeed issued a proclamation ordering all the

inhabitants to fall back on the approach of the enemy, and destroy any

articles that they might possess and were not able to carry with them,

that were at all likely to be of any use to the enemy; and so

thousands of the population of the country that seemed about to fall

within the bounds of the enemy's marches were to be seen flying from

their dwellings, and our army during its retreat was accompanied by

crowds of miserable men, women, and children, all eager to reach the

capital, as they knew that if they fell in with the French, they would

be treated as some had been before, with all the barbarities of an

atrocious enemy. I have often heard talk of "moving" in England, and

have seen a cart or wagon with a man driving a load of furniture, at

the rate of three miles an hour, with a woman and perhaps several

children sitting on the top, or at the back; but I never before or

since saw such a wholesale move as this was, for every one seemed

anxious to carry as many of his effects as he could find room for. The

farther we proceeded the more confused our retreat appeared, for

multitudes were obliged to rest weary and exhausted by the roadside,

and often, though made eager in their endeavours as they heard of the

enemy's approach to again renew their tedious journey, were found

dying or even dead from their hard exertions, and the road was

everywhere strewn with pieces of all kinds of furniture, which the

poor fugitives had vainly attempted to get forward.


From Leiria we went on further to Torres Vedras, which we gained after

a long, tedious, and impressive march; and there we took up our

position at some fine breastworks which Lord Wellington had for some

time previous ordered to be thrown up by the Portuguese peasantry in

case of the retreat of our army. Now we found how much we needed them,

for on the 10th of October the French came in sight of our strong

position, where we had drawn up, determined that they should not

proceed one step farther towards Lisbon.


Massena was rather surprised at our strength, which was quite

unexpected by him. He had thought of driving the English into the sea,

but he now found his mistake, so encamped about a mile and a half from

our position.


On the 14th, however, he attacked our lines near Sobral, but was

repulsed; and on another occasion a slight skirmish took place on the

right of the line, in which the French general, St. Croix, was killed

by the fire from our gunboats; but on account of our strong position,

the French did not come to a general engagement.


The cold and rainy weather having now set in, Lord Wellington had

provided as well as possible for the best reception of his troops, who

were mostly now in cantonments, whilst those of Massena's army were

subject to hardships of the worst description, owing to the cold,

wet, and above all insufficient food and raiment, for they were far

away from all supplies from their own country, and there were

guerillas or mountain rebels always on the watch to intercept such as

were sent, while our army was so near Lisbon that it could always get

abundance. Our regiment was situated in a village called Patamara, in

the front of our works, where we lay as comfortably as if we had been

living in peaceful times; though we were so near the enemy that we

very often wandered into the same vineyards, and exchanged compliments

by shaking hands.


We were cantoned in a large cellar, but it was unfortunately empty, or

at least there was no wine in it, and though there was a quantity of

wheat in a vat, we had no need of that, as we had plenty of our own

supplies. The owner of our cellar generally visited us every day, and

we could not help thinking after a time that he seemed to take

particular notice of a large box or bin that two of our men were using

to sleep in, so we moved it one morning, and found that the ground

underneath had been disturbed. Of course we thought that there must be

some treasure concealed there, so we went to work with our bayonets,

having no other tools at hand, and soon we came across a large jar,

which we found contained bags of dollars, about two hundred and fifty

in each bag; which treasure we distributed privately among the cellar

company, carefully breaking the jar and returning the earth to its

proper place, with the chest on the top of it, so that a minute eye

could not have told that it had been disturbed.


Next morning as usual the owner came, bringing with him two labourers,

who set to work filling the chest with wheat from the vat, evidently

with the intention of making it weighty, he little suspecting that his

treasure, which he supposed was underneath, had been divided amongst

his tenants. After that we thought we were pretty right from

detection, but we were mistaken, for in the morning our restless owner

again made his appearance with the two labourers. I should think that

that night he must have dreamt of our manoeuvre, for he now shifted

the wheat back again into its place, moved the chest, and raised the

earth and the broken jar, but found the bird had flown. I shall never

forget the rage the man was in. I thought he would have torn the hair

off his head; in fact, he did tear some up by the roots, but he must

have found that a poor way of showing his spite. He cried, "_Ladrone!

Ladrone!_" which was his way of expressing "Thief! Thief!" but finding

that we did not take much notice of him, he reported his loss to the

colonel, or rather went off to him with that intention; but as the

colonel did not understand his language, I was sent for, as by that

time I was pretty well acquainted with it; and on my replying to the

question as to what the Portuguese wanted, that he required a corporal

and three privates to guard a stack of wood, the colonel told me to

let him know that he had nothing to do with it. I told the Portuguese

that it was no use his making a noise about the money, as it must have

been only a little change that he could not conveniently recover,

unless he could bring proper witnesses to prove he had put the money



That only appeased him for the night, however, for he came bothering

the colonel again next morning. The colonel again sent for me and

asked me what on earth this man wanted now, so I was then obliged to

admit the truth. I asked him if he would forgive me for telling him an

untruth overnight, and on his consenting, I told him the Portuguese

had lost a quantity of money, which he put down at seven thousand

dollars. The Portuguese's answer to the question who had placed the

money there was that he had himself, but he could bring no witnesses

to show that he had really done it, so the colonel said he could have

nothing to do with the affair. However, the following morning the

plague again appeared, so the colonel to quiet him told him that the

grenadiers had some prize money which was expected in a few days, and

which he should receive in lieu of what he had lost, which sent the

old man off seemingly as satisfied as if he had already got the money

in his possession, shaking hands with us all round, and bowing and

scraping as if we had been so many kings.


The matter did not altogether rest here, however, for the colonel

suspecting that we were implicated, next day we were ordered as if

for marching, just as if we were going to leave the place that very

day, but the men being quite up to that trick, knowing that the French

were still in front, concealed their shares of the money in and around

the cellar. I remember well the manner in which my own and one of my

fellow-comrades' shares were hidden: there was a heap of pumpkins in

the cellar, and in one of these we enclosed our money, cutting a piece

out of it of sufficient size to admit the dollars, and after closing

it up with the top of the original piece, mixing it again with the

remainder of the heap. The company was then marched out into a field,

and all our knapsacks and pockets were searched, but even the little

money that some must have had before was missing.


The colonel did not mind being baffled so much as the major did, who

told the colonel that if he left it in his hands he would endeavour to

find the money, to which the colonel replied that he was just the man

the Portuguese wanted. The manner in which this cunning major went to

work might have succeeded with men less artful than he found us to be,

but every one in the cellar had part in it, so it was to the interest

of all to keep the affair secret, and not only that, but every man's

share in the prize happened to amount to more than the sum which the

major offered to any one who would reveal it. He came to one of the

sergeants of the grenadiers and told him to pick out ten of the men

who would be most likely to inform, but instead of doing so, I think

the sergeant must have chosen the ten worst rogues in the company.

These were then all marched off to the major's quarters, and had in

one by one to see him, as he sat with five guineas lying on his table,

which he offered to the first who should reveal the mystery: but

finding, after he had interviewed about three of them, that he was

being duped, for they all told the same tale, that was that they knew

nothing about the money, he was so enraged that he told them all to go

about their business, saying that they were all a set of thieves, and

next time he saw the colonel he had to own, much to the amusement both

of the latter and of the whole regiment, that he had been beaten in

his knowing undertaking.


Massena remained a little more than a month in his position in front

of Torres Vedras, when, owing to want of food and ammunition, he was

compelled to retrace his steps, not being able to get supplies through

Spain, as the guerillas--who were the most warlike and independent

race of the Spaniards, being chiefly offenders who had escaped to the

mountains and there formed themselves into one strong body amounting

to some thousands--were always on the watch for any supplies that they

might catch hold of, more especially from the enemy, and appropriate

to their own use. Much credit is due to Lord Wellington for thus

drawing the enemy to a place such as Torres Vedras, where they could

get no supplies, and further, could gain no advantage, but on the

other hand must have lost some thousands through want, cold and wet.


From Torres Vedras Massena's army proceeded to Santarem, about ten

leagues from Torres Vedras, and there took up his position on the

Tagus, whence foraging parties were sent out to scour the country for

provisions, who committed horrible excesses on the inhabitants,

carrying away their cattle, or any provisions they could lay their

hands on. It was this that chiefly infuriated the inhabitants against

the French, and caused them to retaliate on any of their stragglers or

wounded whom they came across butchering and using them in a most

awful manner; and even then, after all this work, this method of

gathering provisions for so large an army as Massena's was soon



When the French had retreated from Torres Vedras, Lord Wellington left

some troops in charge of his lines there, and followed to Santarem,

but no general battle took place, only small engagements. The enemy

seemed pretty firm to their ground, so Lord Wellington moved his army

into cantonments again. Our detachment was lying some distance from

Santarem on the Tagus; the actual name of the place is blotted from my

memory by lapse of years.


It was rather curious that while there we received our South American

prize money; money taken from the very people we were now allied with,

so that a great part of it was spent amongst them again. Each private

received eight dollars, and I believe the serjeants sixteen.


The Lisbon traders must have got scent of this, for a quantity of

boats laden with little requisites and luxuries ascended the river

from Lisbon to trade amongst the soldiers, and so we were soon enabled

to rid ourselves of our little spare cash. Our colonel was very

considerate to these people, and being determined as far as possible

to prevent all plunder, had their boats or stalls guarded by sentries.

This, however, did not altogether hinder some of the more daring from

getting things on the cheap now and then, but they were so trifling

that they are hardly worthy of mention.







     Opening of the year 1811 -- Surrender of Olivencia and Badajoz to

     the French under Soult -- The French followed up in their retreat

     from Santarem -- Engagements on the route -- Pombal -- Redinha --

     Condexo -- Casal Nova -- Fatal results of having too large a head

     -- Miranda de Corno -- Poz de Aroce -- Halt at Moira while the

     French take refuge in Celorico -- The fourth division ordered to

     Badajoz -- Halt at Portalegre -- Shameful instance of plunder and

     sacrilege by Lawrence and his comrades -- Campo Mayor --

     Outrageous theft from an unprotected female -- A stolen bird

     turns evidence against its purloiner.



The remainder of the year 1810 was spent in these cantonments, the

French still lying in their position at Santarem. But the beginning of

1811 brought on us more and fatal work, for Soult's army had invested

Olivencia and Badajoz, and obliged them, not being garrisoned by the

British, but only by the Spaniards, to surrender. The way was thus

paved for one of the worst engagements in the whole Peninsular war; I

mean the storming of Badajoz.


The French did not move from Santarem till the beginning of March,

which we discovered on the 6th, and Lord Wellington, having received

fresh reinforcements from England, determined on following them up.

They had taken three routes, and consequently our army had to be

divided too. Our division, which was the Fourth, with the First and

Sixth divisions, commanded by Marshal Beresford, was to follow by way

of Thomar, and the main body of the army by way of Leiria and Pombal,

and so again to unite.


On our route we came up with the French at Thomar, but on our

appearance they retreated to Espinal, a short distance off Pombal, and

took up a strong position between these two latter places. We followed

them up and combined ourselves again into one body. At Pombal the

French had tried, but in vain, to retain the old castle situated

there, and some slight skirmishing had taken place between them and

some of our light troops. At Redinha the third, fourth, and light

divisions attacked the enemy's left, and after a stout engagement we

compelled them to retire upon their main body, and being likewise

attacked on the right, their whole body was thrown into retreat on

Condexo. On our appearance there, they set fire to the place, and

again retreated; their object in burning such a little town being

probably to prevent our cavalry, cannon, and ammunition from following

them up too closely. We were, however, delayed but a very short time,

for we marched through the burning town, certainly not letting the

grass grow under our feet, as the ground was much too hot. It appeared

once to have been a beautiful town, but after this it was one sad mass

of ruin.


The French proceeded from this place to Casal Nova, but were so

quickly followed up that Picton's division overtook them and nearly

captured their leader. Next day we came up with the enemy, posted in a

strong position at Casal Nova, and on the 14th of March the light

division attacked them and obliged them to retreat to a neighbouring

height, whence after another attack they again found it best to retire

on Miranda de Corno. Part of our division was in this engagement, and

I never saw cannon play with better or more deadly effect on any body

of men than ours did on the enemy, situated as they were on the

heights of Casal Nova. Yet they left very few dead or wounded on the

field; I think they must have carried most of them away, as the ground

was strewn with muskets and swords.


The thing I noticed most particularly in this fight was the singular

death of a man in our regiment, who was named William Halfhead, but

considering the size of his head, which must have gone a very great

way towards filling half a bushel measure, it was wrongly so, and he

was the sport of the whole regiment, who named him Bushelhead. His

head was indeed so large that he had to have two caps to make him one.

This poor fellow was standing within five yards of me when a shot from

the enemy's cannon took this same head clean off. I heard one of the

men exclaim, "Hullo, there goes poor Bushelhead," and that was all the

sympathy he got.


One division, under General Cole, proceeded after the enemy to

Panella, where it was joined by another, under General Nightingale,

and on the enemy seeing how closely they were followed they retreated

from Miranda de Corno, setting fire to that town also. We again fell

in with them on the banks of a river near the village of Poz de Aroce,

where a brisk attack was made on them by the British, and they were

driven from the river in great confusion with a loss of some four

hundred men or more. It has been reported that numbers were even

killed by their own side, through the darkness of the night and the

confusion arising from their not having expected an attack then.


We encamped there one day, and then again pursued the enemy, coming up

with them where they were posted behind the river Alva. There they had

sent out four or five hundred foragers in search of provisions: and

indeed they must have wanted them badly, for even we that had come

from the land of plenty at Torres Vedras were at that time in great

want. We did not, however, let them stay there long enough for the

suppliers to return, for we opened fire on them, and forced them to

retreat to Moira, leaving their foraging parties to the mercy of the

English and Portuguese, most of them sooner or later falling into our

hands. We crossed the Alva on a floating bridge and halted near Moira,

as the enemy had now retreated to Celorico; but here Lord Wellington

was obliged to stay the pursuit through want of provisions.


On hearing of the state of Badajoz he had already determined to send

reinforcements to that place, so our division and one of the

Portuguese under General Hamilton, with a brigade of cavalry, were

directed to march southward again and invest Badajoz before that

place's defences could be repaired by the enemy. Accordingly, on the

17th of March, our divisions crossed the Tagus at Tancos, whence we

advanced to Portalegre, halting there for about two days.


Here I think I ought to relate an incident just to show that the

English often committed depredations on the inhabitants almost as bad

as the enemy. We are often too prone to see other people's and

nations' faults, whilst if our own had but the light thrown on them,

they would often come up to, if not exceed, those of our adversaries.


We, at least my company, were billeted in a chapel, at night lying on

straw, which in the morning had to be rolled up neatly in our blankets

so as to make the place look comfortable during the day, a separate

lot of straw being allowed for every two men. Very close to this

chapel there was situated a farmyard, inhabited by a quantity of pigs:

and pork being a thing which the company had not tasted for some time,

we made up our minds to have a treat. So one of our number was chosen

to steal a pig, being, I suppose, one whose fingers were thought well

adapted to the purpose. He pitched on a very novel plan of proceeding,

for, taking a sergeant's pike, he stuck the pig with it, and then

escaped till the poor animal had died; on which, not being long

afterwards, we conveyed it to the chapel.


We thought that we had done this all unobserved, but the farmer had

either watched our movements, or must have seen the blood and gone to

count, and so missed the pig, and we soon saw that all was not to pass

off so nicely as we expected, for presently he put in an appearance at

the chapel too. Finding, however, that we were too strong for him,

and seeing nothing of the missing pig, he went off and reported the

circumstance to our colonel.


Meanwhile we lost no time in making our plans for a place of security

for our prize. At first we thought of our straw beds, that is, of

wrapping the pig in the blanket, but our afterthoughts told us that

that would not be safe. At one end of the chapel, however, there was a

large statue of the Virgin Mary, having on a robe with a long train,

and it was under this train that we concealed our prize in the best

possible manner, so as to baffle any chance of detection by the

appearance of the train being altered. And sure enough, it proved to

be the safest place we could have hit upon for our desired end, for

very soon in came the farmer with a priest, and the first thing they

did was to make their obedience to the monument, whilst we were all

the time laughing in our sleeves to think how they were likewise

honouring the pig.


Something more serious was soon to happen, however, for a very few

minutes afterwards the captain and colonel both came in and ordered

every berth to be examined; but they searched in vain, and pronounced

it to be some mistake on the farmer's part, as in that short time we

could not have cooked, eaten, or otherwise got rid of the pig. The

farmer, however, still felt certain that we had it, but it could not

be found anywhere in the chapel, so he was obliged to retire without

any compensation for his unfortunate pig. Then we breathed a little

more freely at last, for if we had been found out, we most likely

should have had our grog stopped for some time, and that goes in such

times very much against the heart of a soldier.


Early next morning our kettles were at work in the usual way, cooking

our breakfasts, but that particular morning every man of the chapel

company had a small extra portion in the pot, being his allowance of

the pig, not much certainly, when it came to be divided amongst so

many, about one pound for each man; but even that, and the more

especially as it was pork, was thought no little of in such times of

short diet, for we were not over abundantly stocked with provisions.

In fact it was chiefly for that reason, and to refresh ourselves from

the long continued marches, that we were now delaying on our southward



On again resuming our march, we arrived in four or five days at a

place called Campo Mayor, where we caught sight of the enemy, but only

in marching order towards Badajoz. Here I have again to relate another

shameful instance of plunder which happened on the same march. We were

encamped near a village of no particular note, and of which therefore

I did not arrive at the exact name: and a party of men, perhaps to the

number of about twenty, including myself, were out on the forage, when

we arrived at the house of a poor woman, who evidently kept a kind of

general shop, though we could not see any other houses near. Four or

five with myself went into the shop and asked the woman if she had

any bread for sale, to which she replied that there was some baking

which would be done in about an hour, if we could wait, which we

consented to do; but meanwhile a signal was given to the remaining

part of our company, who, observing that the oven was built out from

the house, immediately set to work to make a hole with their bayonets

so as to be able to get the bread out. While this operation was going

on out at the back we were amusing the woman with some of our

Peninsular tales in front until the hour had passed; when, on her

going to draw the bread she found much to her amazement that every

loaf was missing, and daylight gleaming in on her through a hole in

the back of the oven. The poor woman was then in a terrible stew, and

we did all we could to reconcile her to her loss, making out that we

knew nothing of the sad business; but this pity did not detain us

long, for we pretty quickly made for the camp and made a first rate

meal off the bread, which was to us then a greater luxury than meat,

as we were very seldom supplied with bread, more especially so fresh

as this, which was smoking hot, though not very well done; but if it

had been dough we could have eaten it at that time.


On another occasion, on the same march, I caught another cock, or

rather took it from a farmyard; but not feeling inclined to be

troubled with a second live one, as I had still got Tom campaigning

with me, I gave it three swings by the head, which I thought broke

its neck, and put it away out of sight in my high cap. On my return to

camp, the company had just fallen in on parade, and no sooner had the

captain passed close to me, than my cap-tenant crew, or made a

terrible noise of some sort, much to the astonishment both of myself

and the captain, who said, "Hullo, Lawrence, what have you got there?"

I told him a cock, which I had bought when out foraging. "Yes," he

said, "you offered four, but took it with five," meaning, I suppose,

my fingers. He was perfectly right, but I did not think it would have

passed off quite so smoothly, as many in the Peninsula were hanged for

plunder; all we were allowed to forage for at this place being

provisions for the horses and mules.







     Commencement of the siege of Badajoz -- Sortie by the garrison

     repulsed -- Lawrence takes a prisoner, who proves difficult of

     persuasion -- Lawrence poses as champion of the regimental grog,

     and is indulged in return with an uncomfortable spell of sentry

     -- He eventually triumphs -- Move to, and capture of Olivencia --

     Separates from a faithful friend -- Return towards Badajoz --

     Battle of Albuera.



From Campo Mayor we went on towards Badajoz, some slight skirmishing

with the enemy's rear-guard taking place on the way, but with very

little success on either side. We made a stay at Elvas until

preparations had been made for crossing the Guadiana, and then we

proceeded to Badajoz, the town that so pestered the Allies during the

Peninsular War. Our brigade took up its position on the north side of

the town and river, and commenced throwing up batteries. During our

operations the French sallied out of the town, crossed the river, and

attempted to destroy a part of our work, thus actively engaging about

three hundred of our covering party, together with a small

reinforcement of grenadiers, which latter, however, soon made them

beat a retreat into the town again.


I succeeded in capturing a straggler here, but was not able to get him

into our lines by myself, on account of his lying down and refusing to

come; so I broke his musket, but not feeling inclined even then to

leave him, I knelt down to protect myself a little from the enemy's

shot, and waited for some assistance. This was not long in coming, for

the colonel, seeing my position, allowed a man, Towser by name, who

had volunteered, to come and lend me a hand, and thus we were enabled

to get my captive safe at last to the lines: not, however, without

some risk to our own lives, as the enemy were firing at us all the

time from a fort situated a short distance from the river. The man was

not at all willing at first to walk, so we dragged him by the leg

along the ground for some way; but owing to the roughness of the

road, he soon found that he preferred walking. We searched him and

found a doubloon and a half on his person, which Towser and I divided

equally between us. The colonel reprimanded me for running such a risk

for one prisoner, but he was satisfied with my answer, which was that

perhaps the man had been on the alert to fire at some of us, which

might have terminated in the colonel's own death, or maybe in mine.

The colonel had already been slightly wounded in the leg, which

obliged him afterwards to go into the hospital at Elvas, and some

thirty-eight of my comrades unfortunately met their deaths in this



The colonel sent a quantity of rum from Elvas to be divided amongst

those men who were in action at the time he received his wound, but

the officer then in charge of us, whom nobody in the regiment liked,

only served out the half of it, which only came to about half a pint

for each man, much to the discontent of all. I spoke out and said that

we ought to have it all, as the colonel had sent it, and we had had to

fight hard for it; which so put out the officer that he said I should

not have any at all. The sergeant, however, gave me a half a pint with

the rest, unbeknown to the officer, and immediately went and asked him

if I was to have any. The officer then told him to "let the rascals

have the lot, and then they would be satisfied," so thus I came in for

another half pint, which I put into my canteen with some water to

drink when I might next be on sentry.


This came to my turn on the very night following, and as it chanced, I

was commanded by the same officer that I have been alluding to. It was

not often that the major went round with the picket, but that night,

having taken the colonel's command, he did so, and saw me placed on

sentry. I was placed as outlying sentry, and ought to have been

relieved in three hours, instead of which, out of spite for the rum

job, the officer never came near me all night; in fact, I never saw a

man from the time I was put on till I came off myself in the morning.

I will give some details of the coincidences of that night, which was

dark but starlight, so that I could just catch a dim glimpse of the

enemy's before mentioned fort, and, owing to the heights, was able to

see the town very well.


The place where I was on sentry was in a field of standing wheat in

ear, amongst which I sat down and was fairly comfortable for about an

hour; after which the enemy seemed to have made out my position, and

kept dabbing at me with their muskets for a long time. I could not

make out how it was they had caught sight of me, but after they had

continued firing for some time, I at last found out the cause. On my

cap there was a large bright brass plate, which no doubt made a slight

reflection either from the stars or the light from the town, and so

drew their attention to me. So much for bright dress and brass plates,

thought I, though fortunately they had done me no harm; and now for

the remedy that I proposed. I took the loading-rod from my musket, and

stuck it fast into the ground, and placing my cap upon it, I proceeded

about ten yards to the right and sat down; and it was fortunate that I

did so, for during the night they put two shots through my cap, and

that would have been awkward if my head had been inside. It is not to

be supposed, however, that I sat there bareheaded all night, for I put

on my slop or foraging cap, and then sat hearkening to the sound of

chimes and bells pronouncing the hours of eleven, twelve, one, two,

three, and four, and the occasional whizzing of shells and shot over

my head.


At length, after hearing the bells strike the last-named hour, and

seeing the dawn, too, beginning to peep over the distant horizon,

knowing that my turn to be relieved had long since passed, I put back

my loading rod into its place and my cap on my head, and decamped to

the body picket. There I met the major, who seeing me return, and

knowing that it was my turn for rest, asked me where I had been. I

said, "Were you not with the officer when he placed me on sentry last

night?" He replied; "Yes, has he not relieved you since?" On which I

told him no, and that I thought it was time to relieve myself,

likewise showing him my cap for him to judge what a hot night I had

had of it. I also gave the reason that I thought for the officer's

spite, which put him out terribly, so much so that he immediately

called up the officer, who had retired to rest some hours, and told

him that if they had not been so near the enemy, he would have had him

tried by court-martial for his neglect: which might have ended by his

being cashiered out of the service. That was the first and last time

that he ever left me on sentry all night.


Our stay here, however, was of short duration for we proceeded further

towards Olivencia, which was garrisoned by about four hundred of the

enemy. We crossed the Guadiana near that place on a bridge constructed

of empty casks and planks, and sat down before the town about the 11th

of April. In a few days our batteries were all ready for action, and

on the garrison refusing to surrender, we commenced firing, and soon

made a breach; but at that point the governor, fearing an assault,

immediately surrendered, and he and his garrison were all taken



It was at this place that I parted with Tom. For being bothered by the

colonel's servant to let him have my pet, I foolishly consented,

though my comrades did their best to persuade me to keep him. He told

me he wanted to take him to England, and gave me a dollar for him, but

I afterwards found out that he had killed him for his master's dinner.

I think I felt as sorry for that as I ever did for anything, for I

dearly liked Tom.


From Olivencia we marched again towards Badajoz, but owing to Soult's

army being on its way to relieve that town, Beresford had occupied the

heights of Albuera, about thirteen miles southeast of Badajoz, in

order to check the enemy if possible in their intended object. General

Cole therefore advanced to Albuera as well, and the action had just

commenced when he arrived. The Allies had taken up their position on a

fine ridge of heights, and the French under Marshal Soult made their

appearance on the 15th of May.


On the following morning they made an attack on the right, which was

occupied by the Spaniards, who soon gave way in great disorder, again

leaving the brunt of the battle to the British; and not only that, but

also thus allowing the French to gain part of the heights. A noble

attack, however, was made by the Second division, the first brigade of

which in trying to gain the ridge was met by the fierce Polish

Lancers, who slaughtered a tremendous number of them; in fact, the

battle was at one time thought to have been gained by the French, and

most likely would have been, had not Colonel Harding hurled part of

our division and a reserve Portuguese brigade against the enemy, and

so renewed the fight. General Cole himself led our fusiliers up the

hill. Six British guns and some colours were then already in the

enemy's possession, but Cole's troops soon dispersed the lancers,

and, recapturing the guns and colours, drove the French down again in



It is useless for me to give any further details of this celebrated

battle, for it has been already depicted so many times and so much

more ably than I could do; but the Allies could not have lost less

than seven thousand killed, wounded and missing, while the French loss

was stated to be nine thousand. It was seldom, however, that we

arrived at the correct estimate of the enemy's loss, it being

generally the custom to state it as greater than ours, and my opinion

is that in this battle the Allies lost quite an equal number to the

French. The Spaniards especially must have sustained a great loss in

their confusion. It was always a bother to get them to stir forward

during a battle, but retreating was what they were best at, and then

it was always in confusion; at the battle of Albuera indeed whilst

they were in this state they even fired at random, and several shots

went amongst the English.


General Cole was himself wounded in this engagement, which resulted so

sadly for both parties; for it could hardly be termed a victory for

either side, and if so it was a very dearly bought one. Still it was

we who remained on the field in the end.







     The siege of Badajoz converted into a blockade -- Move to

     Guinaldo -- Lord Wellington as a general -- A slight digression

     on the horrors of war -- Instances of cruelty by both the French

     and the inhabitants -- The English not wholly blameless --

     Private depredations of Lawrence and his comrades -- Siege of

     Ciudad Rodrigo -- Capture of a troublesome convent -- A

     successful assault made -- Scenes in the town afterwards --

     Incidents during the cantonments -- Putting it out of sight

     proves not to be the best way of keeping grog -- Being too

     sparing to one's beast not always advantageous.



For the remaining part of the year 1811 both armies were inactive. The

batteries had been at work at Badajoz and breaches had been made, but

these had proved impracticable, twelve forlorn hopes and storming

parties having advanced into them with no better result than that many

met their deaths and the remainder had to withdraw owing to obstacles.

The siege was therefore converted into a blockade, and Lord

Wellington, who after taking Almeida and driving the French out of

Portugal, had come southward with two divisions to reinforce

Beresford's army, moved the general South Army into cantonments and

encampments near the River Caza, a tributary of the Guadiana. There we

remained till July, when we were marched northward again across the

Tagus, and took up our position at Guinaldo. While there no particular

engagement ensued; the enemy indeed falling on another part of our

line, but no success being obtained on either side.


Although Lord Wellington had now driven the French clean out of

Portugal, he had still other work to do; work that praised him more

than he had been before, work that raised him to higher honours than

he yet possessed, but likewise work that sacrificed more thousands of

human beings than had been through the whole three years. There can be

no doubt that if he had had as many troops as the French, he would

long before this have driven them out of Portugal and perhaps Spain as

well; he seemed to understand their every movement, and was thus

always ready waiting to receive them; and they on their part seemed to

think they had more than found their match in him, and had become very

cautious in contending with him. But he actually had only half their

number, or even less, that he could depend on, and these were

sometimes not fit for service from want or other privations, as these

tales of the hospitals or rather deadly convents go to prove, where so

many of my comrades passed the end of their lives, and their remains

were carried out with no more ceremony than I described as at Elvas.


The Portuguese themselves were mostly exempt from the actual

slaughter, but their country had already been left by the enemy in

about as bad a state as it could; for if it had been infested with

swarms of locusts, the devastation could not have been paralleled. The

war could not have left one family quite untouched by its

destructiveness or by misery and grief irrecoverable for many years;

and indeed, in some cases, for ever, for many a child was deprived of

its father or mother, or even of both parents, and many were the

parents who had lost their children; and if any had accumulated a

little fortune then it must have been lost, being ever liable to be

plundered by the soldiery.


It must be said, however, that certainly the Spaniards and likewise

the Portuguese behaved on their part very cruelly to the enemy's

wounded, prisoners, or stragglers. I myself was witness to one of

their barbarous acts. They had laid a ring of straw round a wounded

Frenchman and set fire to it, and when the poor man tried to crawl

out, he was only received with a pitchfork which sent him again into

the centre. We soon made the Portuguese fly by firing in amongst them;

but when we came up to the poor man, his hair, fingers, and face were

fearfully burnt already. He implored us not to leave him, but we were

obliged to, and no doubt either the Portuguese returned and killed

him, or else he died of the injuries he had sustained at their hands,

or from the wounds that had before disabled him.


These barbarities, however, the enemy brought on themselves by dealing

out the same coin, for they would go on foraging parties, and perhaps

find a whole family or more together trying to protect their very

subsistences, when they would kill the males, serve the females not

much better, and carry off everything they could lay their hands on if

of any value. Sometimes, however, they were overpowered in these

freaks, and then they suffered just as bad a fate as I showed just

now; which, after all, is not much to be wondered at.


I am sorry to say, however, that we ourselves were not quite free from

the charge of depredations, though we did not carry them on to the

extent of bloodshed. An instance of this in which I was myself mixed

up happened during our stay at this very place Guinaldo.


We were quartered nearly twenty in number in two upper rooms of a

house, of which the family inhabited the lower part. Our beds, as

usual, consisted chiefly of straw. An Irish comrade of ours, by name

Harding, whom we named Pig Harding, owing to his always being on the

look out for any cheap pieces he could lay hands on, was quartered in

the same house, and we had not been there many days before he found

about thirty pounds of sausages curled round the bottom of a large

earthen jar that contained at least ten or twelve gallons of olive

oil, the sausages having evidently been placed there either to keep,

or to be out of our sight. Pig, however, who was up to many of the

Spanish movements, was not long in finding them; he soon had tried the

bottom with his bayonet, and found a prize worth fishing for; and he

came running into our room carrying the sausages, which owing to their

oily state did not fail to leave a trace of their whereabouts. We soon

repaired this defect so as not to be noticeable on the floor, which

was not kept so clean as it might be, and which our stay there had not

improved much, and then we had a fine meal off our sausages, which, to

use Pig's own words, "Blood and 'ounds, _were_ good, very," and soon

there were very few left.


After all in the house had eaten sufficient, the rest were given to

some of our comrades in another house, our policy being always to get

rid of any plunder as quickly as possible so as to bar detection if it

was found out. There were always plenty to help eat it, and in this

case every one of the sausages were gone before the woman found out

her loss, which was not till next day about dinnertime, when no doubt

she expected to cook the family meal off them. The sausages in that

country were generally made of cooked meat flavoured with garlic and

cayenne pepper, so that they were fit for eating at all times without

cooking. When the poor woman found them missing, she soon thought of

the right parties as the thieves; and with her fingers all dripping

with oil, for she had evidently been feeling for them in the jar, she

rushed in crying, "_Ladrone, Ladrone_ (you thieves, you thieves), the

French are bad enough, but you are worse!" We only laughed at her, so

she reported us to our major, who immediately came to our room and

said, "Then you are up to your prigging tricks again," and asked the

woman how much the sausages were worth. She did not fail to ask

enough, for she said sixteen dollars, which he paid at once, saying he

would deduct it from our pay.


The major never did as he said he would, however, and we heard no more

either of the sausages or of our money; but still we did not know that

at the time, and the threat only had the effect of sending Pig off

again in search of something that would at least give us the worth of

our money. He waited till just before we were going to shift from

these quarters, and then he found out a trap-door, through which he

got himself hoisted up, and found eight sides of bacon there, with one

of which he descended, thinking that would be as much as we could

conveniently eat at that place, and so at any rate we had the worth of

the sixteen dollars, for this last affair was not found out before we



On another occasion, whilst we were at the same place, some Spaniards

came into our camp with wine for sale, contained in pigskins carried

across mules' backs, one on each side, and whilst the Spaniard was

measuring it out of one skin, a hole had been made in the other with a

penknife, which lightened both burdens at once considerably, much to

the discontent of the Spaniard on finding it out. But I think that all

such lesser manoeuvres as this, though bad in themselves, can be

perhaps looked over in considering the frequent hungry state that so

large a body of men were in during this war.


We remained in this neighbourhood till the latter end of 1811. The

beginning of 1812 opened with the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo, where we

arrived and began to break ground on the 8th of February.


We had to commence throwing up our batteries and breastworks under a

particular annoyance from three guns, situated on a fortified convent

a little distance from the town, near where our brigade's operations

were in progress, so our colonel for one volunteered to storm the

convent, which offer was accepted. Several companies, therefore,

including my own, advanced under him unobserved by the enemy in the

darkness of the night, and succeeded in effecting an entrance into the

convent, the garrison being taken by surprise, but managing to decamp.

I then volunteered with a few men to march on up to the tower where

the guns were situated, a priest being made to show us the way, as the

path which we had to tread was so winding. When we arrived at the top,

which must have taken us at least ten minutes, we found no French

there, but the three shattered cannon still remained, which we were

ordered to pitch down, not much improving their condition thereby, and

so we gained the object for which we had come. All the French that

were left in the convent, or at least all I saw there, were two of

their wounded, but they were good enough to leave us a room full of

cabbages, which came in very handy.


After this affair we took up our quarters in the convent, but still

continued our ground work. Once the enemy sallied out of the town and

attacked us during these operations, and a smart brush ensued, but

they were soon obliged to retire again. Now and then the garrison

would greet us with a cannon-ball, which often did some little

mischief; a sergeant was killed by one, which at the same time took

another's arm off, and I myself had a narrow escape one day whilst in

the breastworks, from a six-pounder which having struck the convent,

rebounded and caught me in the chest. Luckily it was nearly spent, but

as it was it knocked me down, and it was some time before I could

recover my breath, and that not until my comrades had poured some rum

and water down my throat. My chest was much discoloured and swollen,

through which I was ill for nearly a week.


By the 19th of January two practicable breaches were made in the walls

of the town, and an attack was ordered. Our colonel volunteered for

the forlorn hope, but it was put under other commanders, being chiefly

composed of the rifles. The main breach was committed to General

Picton's division, and the brigades of General Vandeleur and Colonel

Barnet were ordered to attack the smaller breach, headed by a

storming-party of three hundred men and a forlorn hope, under Major

George Napier of the Fifty-second regiment. The forlorn hope assembled

between seven and eight o'clock under the walls of the convent we were

then occupying, which protected them a little from the enemy's shot.

All was deathly silent amongst those men, who perhaps could not help

thinking that it might be their last undertaking: in fact, this is

much the worst business a soldier can enter upon, as scarcely anything

but death looks him in the face. There they were watching with intense

anxiety for the to many fatal signal; and at length the order was

given to advance.


The assault was to be conducted on all sides at once, and in double

quick time the troops were at the breach, although the ladders, which

were being carried by the Portuguese, when wanted had disappeared. Our

troops nevertheless pushed onwards and gained the breach, when either

through accident or the neglect of the train-man, a mine was sprung

before the French were clearly off it, and both French and English

were suddenly blown into the air and buried together in the ruin.

After the smother had fairly cleared away, our troops met with very

little difficulty in mounting the breach and scouring the ramparts,

the French throwing down their arms and retiring into the town itself,

where after a brief contest in the streets, the whole surviving

garrison surrendered; but it was not without the loss of many of the

bravest men on our side in the first assault.


This successful achievement was attended with all the horrors of the

soldiery, excesses, riot, and drunkenness taking place on every side.

Houses were plundered of their contents, cellars broken open and

emptied, and many houses were even set on fire, amid the yells of the

dissipated soldiers and the screams of the wounded. Thus the night

passed, but in the morning order was a little restored, and those men

who were sensible enough returned to their own regiments.


About forty-one pieces of cannon, some stands of arms, and a quantity

of provisions were taken, besides which the enemy must have lost quite

a thousand men, besides the prisoners. Amongst these latter were six

or seven deserters belonging to the Allied army, who were sent to

their respective regiments and probably shot: fortunately there were

none belonging to our division. The Allies' loss was very

considerable, being upwards of a thousand also.


After the reduction of Ciudad Rodrigo, Lord Wellington put it under

garrison and ordered the breaches to be repaired. Then he marched

south to watch the proceedings at Badajoz, whilst we again went into

cantonments near Rodrigo.


Some muleteers halted under the protection of our troops at this

place, laden with rum and biscuits for the supply of the army, over

which sentries were placed on guard, but instead of guarding, they

took so much rum, which being there generally carried in pigs' skins

was easily got at, that they died in consequence next morning.

Likewise one of our cavalry men was here flogged for making away with

his horse's corn to selfishly buy himself grog; and well deserving of

punishment he was, for the poor horse was miserably thin. In fact, the

horses in general were the same, and it was thought that many were

served the same; but this man being the first that was caught, was

tried by court-martial and sentenced to fifty lashes as an example.

The man asked the colonel to look over it as it was his first offence,

but the colonel said, "The horse's looks tell a different tale from

that; he has long had the bitters, and you the sweet, and now it is

time things should be the other way round." Certainly the horses'

forage could not at all times be procured, and especially in the

winter, but for that very reason they had more need of it when it

could be. The best horses I saw during the whole Peninsular campaign

were the German hussars': those men were not so fond of drink as ours,

which might perhaps account for the condition of their animals, as

they had no more chance of gaining forage than our men had.







     Lawrence's division marched south to invest Badajoz -- Small

     choice allowed by the fortunes of war -- In the trenches -- A

     fort taken -- The town walls breached -- Refusal of the garrison

     to surrender -- An assault ordered -- Lawrence in the forlorn

     hope -- A somewhat premature assignation -- Fighting in the

     breach -- Lawrence wounded -- Fearful scenes on his way to the

     rear -- He reports on the state of affairs to Lord Wellington --

     The story of Filer -- The castle carried after severe fighting,

     and the English enter the town -- Dreadful excesses on the part

     of the victorious troops -- Great losses on both sides in the

     assault -- The end of Lawrence's assignation.



Our stay at Rodrigo was of short duration, for we were soon ordered

south to invest Badajoz, which gave us another long and tedious march

of a hundred and fifty miles or more. We arrived there at the

beginning of March, and the third, ours, that is the fourth, and the

light divisions, under the command of Marshal Beresford and General

Picton, invested the town.


We soon broke ground before the town by commencing to throw up

breastworks and batteries. Very heavy rains had just lately set in,

but our troops still pursued their undertaking and persevered in the

trenches. A cannonade was kept up from the town, which fortunately,

however, did not do much damage; but on the 19th of March the garrison

attacked us, and were only driven back with a loss on our side of a

hundred men killed and wounded, and a still greater loss on their



I killed a French sergeant myself with my bayonet in this action. I was

at the time in the trenches when he came on the top and made a dart at

me with his bayonet, having, like myself, exhausted his fire; and while

in the act of thrusting he overbalanced himself and fell. I very soon

pinioned him to the ground with my bayonet, and the poor fellow soon

expired. I was sorry afterwards that I had not tried to take him

prisoner instead of killing him, but at the time we were all busily

engaged in the thickest of the fight, and there was not much time to

think about things. And besides that, he was a powerful-looking man,

being tall and stout, with a beard and moustache completely covering his

face, as fine a soldier as I have seen in the French army, and if I had

allowed him to gain his feet, I might have suffered for it; so perhaps

in such times my plan was the best--kill or be killed.


About eight hundred of us were every night busily engaged in the

trenches, whilst a large number, who were called the covering party,

were on the look out in case of an attack from the enemy. The rain

poured down so fast that balers were obliged to be employed in places,

and at times the trenches were in such a state of mud that it was over

our shoes. We were chiefly employed during the day in finishing off

what we had done in the night, as very little else could be done then

owing to the enemy's fire. We had not been to work many days before we

got within musket shot of a fine fort situated a little distance from

the town, and garrisoned with four or five hundred of the enemy, who

annoyed us rather during our operations. One night as I was working in

the trenches near this place, and just as the guard was about to be

relieved, a shell from the town fell amongst them and exploded,

killing and wounding about thirty. I never saw a worse sight of its

kind, for some had their arms and legs, and some even their heads,

which was worse, completely severed from their bodies. I remember my

comrade, Pig Harding, who was working near me at the time, and had,

like myself, become hardened to the worst of sights during our sojourn

in the Peninsula, saying as a joke, "Lawrence, if any one is in want

of an arm or a leg he can have a good choice there;" little thinking,

poor fellow, that soon he would himself be carried out, numbered with

the slain. On the morning after this explosion a terrific scene of our

mangled comrades presented itself, for their remains strewed the

ground in all directions.


Of course our next thought was how to clear ourselves of this

troublesome fort. Some suspicions were entertained that it was

undermined, so in the dead of night some engineers were sent between

it and the town to search for a train, and finding that the earth had

been moved, they dug down and found the train and cut it off. Then, on

the next night, the Eighty-seventh and Eighty-eighth regiments were

ordered up to storm the fort, and succeeded after a brisk action in

gaining the place, the most of the garrison escaping into the town.

Next morning I entered the fort with the rest, where we found the

wounded Frenchmen lying. We relieved their pain a little by giving

them some of our rum and water, and then conveyed them to the rear;

most of their wounds being bad, evidently from the bayonet, but not



Owing to the success of taking this fort we were enabled to carry on

our works much nearer to the town, and by the beginning of April two

batteries were formed within three or four hundred yards of the place:

and in about five days, through the effects of our twenty-four

pounders, three practicable breaches were made in the walls.


Lord Wellington then ordered the town to be attacked on the night of

the 6th, having previously sent to know if it would surrender: and the

answer being "No," he asked for the inhabitants to be allowed to quit,

as he intended to take the town by assault. In consequence of this

some thousands of the inhabitants quitted the city.


A storming-party was selected from each regiment, and each of the

third, fourth, and light divisions was told off to a breach. I joined

the forlorn hope myself.


Before, however, that I proceed further in my account of this

sanguinary affair, I will relate an engagement that myself, Pig

Harding, and another of my comrades, George Bowden by name, entered

into before we even started on our way, of which the result showed

what a blind one it was. Through being quartered at Badajoz after the

battle of Talavera, all three of us knew the town perfectly well, and

so understood the position of most of the valuable shops: and hearing

a report likewise that if we succeeded in taking the place, there was

to be three hours' plunder, we had planned to meet at a silversmith's

shop that we knew about, poor Pig even providing himself with a piece

of wax candle to light us if needed.


But all this was doomed to disappointment. We were supplied with

ladders and grass bags, and having received and eaten our rations, and

each man carrying his canteen of water, we fell in at half-past eight

or thereabouts to wait for the requisite signal for all to advance.

During the interval our men were particularly silent: but at length

the deadly signal was given, and we rushed on towards the breach.


I was one of the ladder party, for we did not feel inclined to trust

to the Portuguese, as we did at Ciudad Rodrigo. On our arriving at the

breach, the French sentry on the wall cried out, "Who comes there?"

three times, or words to that effect in his own language, but on no

answer being given, a shower of shot, canister and grape, together

with fire-balls, was hurled at random amongst us. Poor Pig received

his death wound immediately, and my other accomplice, Bowden, became

missing, while I myself received two small slug shots in my left knee,

and a musket shot in my side, which must have been mortal had it not

been for my canteen: for the ball penetrated that and passed out,

making two holes in it, and then entered my side slightly. Still I

stuck to my ladder, and got into the entrenchment. Numbers had by this

time fallen: but the cry from our commanders being, "Come on, my

lads!" we hastened to the breach; but there, to our great surprise and

discouragement, we found a _chevaux de frise_ had been fixed and a

deep entrenchment made, from behind which the garrison opened a deadly

fire on us. Vain attempts were made to remove this fearful obstacle,

during which my left hand was dreadfully cut by one of the blades of

the _chevaux de frise_, but finding no success in that quarter, we

were forced to retire for a time.


We remained, however, in the breach until we were quite weary with our

efforts to pass it. My wounds were still bleeding, and I began to feel

very weak; my comrades persuaded me to go to the rear; but this proved

a task of great difficulty, for on arriving at the ladders, I found

them filled with the dead and wounded, hanging some by their feet just

as they had fallen and got fixed in the rounds. I hove down three lots

of them, hearing the implorings of the wounded all the time; but on

coming to the fourth, I found it completely smothered with dead

bodies, so I had to draw myself up over them as best I could. When I

arrived at the top I almost wished myself back again, for there of the

two I think was the worse sight, nothing but the dead and wounded

lying around, and the cries of the latter, mingled with the incessant

firing from the enemy, being quite deafening.



I was so weak myself that I could scarcely walk, so I crawled on my

hands and knees till I got out of reach of the enemy's musketry. After

proceeding for some way I fell in with Lord Wellington and his staff,

who seeing me wounded, asked me what regiment I belonged to. I told

him the Fortieth, and that I had been one of the forlorn hope. He

inquired as to the extent of my wounds, and if any of our troops had

got into the town, and I said "No," and I did not think they ever

would, as there was a _chevaux de frise_, a deep entrenchment, and in

the rear of them a constant and murderous fire being kept up by the

enemy. One of his staff then bound up my leg with a silk handkerchief,

and told me to go behind a hill which he pointed out, where I would

find a doctor to dress my wounds; so I proceeded on, and found that it

was the doctor of my own regiment.


Next after me Lieutenant Elland was brought in by a man of the name of

Charles Filer, who had seen him lying wounded at the breach with a

ball in the thigh, and on his asking him to convey him from the

breach, had raised him on his shoulders for that object. But during

his march a cannon-ball had taken the officer's head clean off without

Filer finding it out on account of the darkness of the night, and the

clamour of cannon and musketry mingled with the cries of the wounded.

Much it was to Filer's astonishment, then, when the surgeon asked him

what he had brought in a headless trunk for; he declared that the

lieutenant had a head on when he took him up, for he had himself asked

him to take him from the breach, and that he did not know when the

head was severed, which must have been done by one of the bullets of

which there were so many whizzing about in all directions. Some may

doubt the correctness of this story, but I, being myself both a hearer

and an eyewitness to the scene at the surgeon's, can vouch for the

accuracy of it. Certainly Filer's appearance was not altogether that

of composure, for he was not only rather frightened at the fearful

exposure of his own body at the breach and across the plain, but he

was evidently knocked up, or rather bowed down, by the weight of his

lifeless burden, which he must, if he came from the breach, have

carried for upwards of half a mile, so that, under these

disadvantages, the mistake might easily have been made even by any one

of harder temperament than his. But the tale did not fail to spread

through the camp, and caused great laughter over Filer, sentences

being thrown at him such as "Who carried the man without a head to the

doctor?" &c.


After Lord Wellington had found it useless to attempt to face the

breach with the _chevaux de frise_, he altered his plans of attack.

More success had fortunately been achieved in the other breaches, so

he withdrew the men from our fatal breach to reinforce the others, but

not till at least two thousand had been killed or wounded in this

single assault. He had ordered the castle to be attacked, and a

quantity of troops had been supplied for the purpose with long

ladders, which had been raised against the walls and filled with men:

but the enemy showered down a mass of heavy substances, such as trees

and large stones, and amongst all a number of deadly bursting shells,

and thus broke the ladders and tumbled the men down from top to

bottom, crushing still more underneath.


Yet more men were found ready to push on to the sanguinary scene. More

ladders had indeed to be procured, which caused another great delay,

but as soon as they arrived they were quickly hoisted, and the

precaution was taken this time to fix them farther apart, so that if

more beams were waiting to be rolled over, they might not take such a

deadly sweep.


The second attempt was more successful, for the ramparts were gained

and the French driven back: and a single piece of ground being thus

gained, a footing was soon established for many more, who succeeded in

turning round some guns and firing them along the ramparts, soon

sweeping the enemy off them.


Fresh reinforcements on both sides shortly arrived at this for us

successful spot, but the garrison was soon forced back into the town.

The ramparts were then scoured, the breaches cleared, and the _chevaux

de frise_ pulled down, and the main body of the English entered the

town. Some opposition had to be overcome in the streets, but that was

soon cleared away, and the French escaped to Fort San Cristoval.


Our troops found the city illuminated to welcome them, but

nevertheless then began all the horrors that generally attended a

capture by assault--plunder, waste, destruction of property,

drunkenness, and debauchery. I was myself exempt from all this, owing

to my wounds, which kept me in camp at the time the town was taken;

but though I was at least a mile off, I could distinctly hear the

clamour of the rabble, as the guns and musketry had ceased; and next

morning I hobbled as well as I could into the town with the help of

the handle of a sergeant's pike chopped up so as to form a stick, and

there sure enough I found a pretty state of affairs. Pipes of wine had

been rolled into the streets and tapped by driving the heads in, for

any one to drink of them who liked, and when the officers tried to

keep order by throwing all of these over that they could, the men that

were in a state of drunkenness lay down to drink out of the gutters,

which were thus running with all sorts of liquors; doors were blown

open all through the city, both upstairs and down, by placing muskets

at the keyhole and so removing the locks. I myself saw that morning a

naked priest launched into the street and flogged down it by some of

our men who had a grudge against him for the treatment they had met at

a convent, when staying in the town before. I happened to meet one of

my company, and asked him how he was getting on, to which he replied

that he was wounded in the arm, but that he had got hold of something

that compensated for that a little, showing me a bag of about a

hundred dollars that he had succeeded in obtaining, and saying that I

should not want whilst he had got it.


But whilst all this debauchery was going on amongst some of our

soldiers, I will give a word of credit to a great many of the more

respectable, who were trying as much as lay in their power to stop the

ferociousness of the same. That morning I met many about, who said

they were sorry to think that the soldiers could not carry it on

without going to such excesses as they did, respectable houses being

ransacked from top to bottom, with no regard to the entreaties of the

few inhabitants who remained within the walls. Things that could not

be taken were often destroyed, and men were threatened if they did not

produce their money, and the women sometimes the same. Comparatively

few murders were, I believe, committed, but some no doubt occurred.


It was not till the drunken rabble had dropped into a sound slumber or

had died in consequence of their excesses, that the unhappy city

became at all composed; but in the morning some fresh troops were

placed on guard, and a few gallows were erected, but not much used.

Two or three officers had been killed in the act of keeping order, and

I have been given to understand that some of the fifth division,

having arrived after most places had been ransacked, plundered their

drunken fellow-comrades, and it was likewise reported that a few were

even murdered. Lord Wellington punished all offenders by stopping

their grog for some time; but in these times such scenes as these were

generally found to occur after a place had had to be so hardly fought

for. No doubt in the present day, at least half a century later, more

discipline is observed in similar circumstances, which must be owned

as a great improvement.


This same morning the garrison surrendered. Before the assault it had

numbered about five thousand, but we found that some twelve hundred of

these had been slain, and now the rest were prisoners; while upwards

of one hundred and fifty guns, eighty thousand shots, and a great

quantity of muskets and ammunition were taken in the place. Ours was a

much severer loss, for nearly five thousand of our men, including

three or four hundred officers, were either killed or wounded. But it

must be observed that with the circumstances under which our troops

had to fight it was a wonder that they entered the town at all that

night, every obstacle that a cunning enemy could devise being there to

be overcome. Every kind of combustible deadly in its action was thrown

amongst the men; placed in readiness along the ramparts were trees,

stones, and beams; and the worst of all was the fearful _chevaux de

frise_; in fact nothing had been wanting to discourage the men, who,

however, pushed on, being as anxious as Lord Wellington himself to get

into the town.


All being now over, thoughts of Pig Harding, George Bowden, and our

engagement, ran in my head, and how it had all failed, poor Pig having

received seven shots in his body, and George Bowden having had both

thighs blown off. Both must have met with instant death, and I myself

had four wounds and was disabled for some time from getting about. I

resolved then that I would never make any more engagements under the

same fearful circumstances. We missed poor Pig more than any man of

the regiment, for he passed many an hour away pleasantly with his

jokes, being a thoroughbred Irishman, and not only that, but he

supplied us with many an extra piece of tommy by his roguish tricks.







     Six weeks in hospital at Estremoz -- A new way to keep up the

     spirits -- Lawrence allowed to go on to Salamanca at his own risk

     -- He catches the fever there, and has to go into hospital again

     at Ciudad Rodrigo -- At last rejoins his regiment -- Cessation of

     hostilities on both sides, and the British Army goes into

     cantonments -- Lawrence made a corporal -- The cat's paw comes in

     for its share of the booty, and gets the chestnuts into the

     bargain -- A romantic episode to relieve the monotony of war.



A day or two after these events, the wounded were all conveyed to

hospital, some to Elvas and some to Estremoz. I was amongst the

latter, as was likewise my comrade whom I mentioned as meeting me in

the streets of Badajoz, as we were considered better able to stand the

longer journey, the distance on from Elvas to Estremoz being about six

leagues the other side from Badajoz.


On our arrival at hospital, we were allowed to take in no spirits or

wine, which, as we had lately had so much of them, seemed to be more

of a hardship to us than our wounds: but we were not long in working a

system by which we were enabled to procure something to drink. The

window of our ward looked out into one of the streets, on the opposite

side of which was a wine shop, which for some time tormented us

horribly: it was something like the fable of the fox and the grapes,

sour because it was out of reach. The man of the house was often at

his door on the look out, the natives there seeming to suffer from

that general complaint as much as in our own country villages, where

if there is anything fresh in the streets, perhaps only a strange man,

or even one of the inhabitants in a new coat or hat, the whole place

works itself into an uproar.


We soon devised a plan to gain our desired end. There was in the ward

a tin kettle, holding nearly two gallons, and having procured a long

string we put our money into this, and lowered it to the Portuguese,

who soon getting used to our plan would put the money's value in the

shape of wine into the kettle and again tie it to the string, so that

we could hoist it up to the window again. After that we arranged for

our ward to be pretty well supplied with grog too in the same way.

Some suspicions being entertained by the doctor on the inflamed

appearance of our wounds, he told us two or three times that he knew

we had been drinking something we ought not, and blew the sergeant of

the guard up for not being more strict in his search at the door,

little dreaming how we had contrived another way to get this

aggravator of our wounds in. But the appearance of our wounds did not

stop us from lowering the kettle, which soon went down twice and

sometimes three times a day, for the neighbouring wards got scent of

the affair, and sent money to be lowered as well.


Thus I passed about six weeks before I recovered sufficiently to get

out of the hospital; but many were in a much worse state than myself,

some losing their arms, some their legs, and some even dying of their

wounds. One of the slug shots, however, could never be extricated from

my knee, having settled into the bone. I felt it for some time, but in

the end it ceased to trouble me, the bone having probably grown over



I was let out of the hospital as a convalescent, and billeted in the

place at a house occupied by a widow and her daughter, who were very

kind to me during my stay there, which was for about a fortnight.

Then I received intelligence that a hundred and fifty others were well

enough to rejoin the army, so I asked the doctor if I might accompany

them. He told me that my wounds were not yet sufficiently set for me

to undertake the journey; but I was by this time sick of hospitals,

physics, Estremoz, and the lot of it, and was mad to get back to my

regiment, so I went to the captain, who was still lying wounded in the

hospital, and asked him to speak to the doctor to let me go. The

result was that next morning I again saw the doctor, who said I could

go, but I must abide by the consequences myself, as he would not be

answerable for my safety; so about three days after that our little

group started on the way to the army, which had meanwhile moved

northward from Badajoz to Salamanca, about two hundred miles distant,

which we found rather a tedious march in our then condition.


I had not been many days at Salamanca before a fever broke out, which

I caught very badly, and so was ordered back into hospital at Ciudad

Rodrigo, along with a number of fellow troops who were troubled with a

like malady with myself. On my arrival at the hospital, my hair was

cut off by order of the doctor, and my head blistered; and I had not

been there many hours before I became quite insensible, in which state

I remained more or less for three months, which brought on great

weakness. I received kind treatment, however, from the doctor and our

attendants, and was allowed to eat anything my fancy craved, and

amongst other things, without having to resort to any contrivance as

at Estremoz, I could get wine.


After being in hospital nearly two months longer, my strength had come

back enough to allow me to be removed out of the town to a convent,

the very one before mentioned which I had helped to storm when we were

throwing up batteries for the assault of the town. There I found a

number like myself who had lately recovered, and amongst them some of

my own comrades of my own regiment, which made the time pass more

lively than if we had been all strangers. By the time my strength was

sufficiently recruited to again permit me to go on active service,

November had again come round, so that from the time of receiving my

wound at Badajoz, at least seven months had passed away before I was

free from sickness and in a proper condition to again join my



The army, including my regiment, had been all this time actively

employed at Salamanca, Madrid, and Burgos, and after going through

many long marches and retreats, had again formed at Salamanca, up to

which place the enemy had closely followed them. But owing to the

season being too bad now to carry on the war, both sides felt more

disposed to remain inactive for the remainder of 1812, so Lord

Wellington determined on putting his army in cantonments; and in

proceeding to carry out that design, for the enemy had now abandoned

following up his retreat, he touched at Ciudad Rodrigo, which afforded

a fine opportunity, which I willingly took, of rejoining my regiment.


I found that our regiment had taken at the famous battle of Salamanca

a splendid drum-major's staff from the enemy, which was stated to be

worth at least £50, and it must have come in very useful, for ours was

terribly worn and knocked about, being very old, having been itself

taken from the French in Holland, during the commandership of the Duke

of York.


Soon after I rejoined, we crossed the Agueda into Portugal again, to

take up our winter quarters in that country. Although it was not many

leagues from Ciudad Rodrigo to where our cantonments were to be, yet

that small march seemed to be almost going to knock me up, for my leg

did not seem altogether strong enough to bear much marching, both of

the slug shots having entered the sinew under the knee, and while we

were engaged in this march it was kept constantly on the move.

However, after we had settled down for about three weeks, I began to

feel more like myself, and was therefore enabled to take my regular

amount of duty.


But after we had been in cantonments some four or five weeks, I was on

sentry one day, when to my great surprise, a comrade came to relieve

me some time before my usual time had expired, which made me think

something must be wrong: so, of course, wishing to know something of

the matter before I felt disposed to leave guard, I asked the man what

it was all about, and he told me that I had been made a corporal in

the seventh company. I would at the time have much rather remained a

private in my own company than be made a corporal and be transferred

to the seventh; it was certainly better as far as pay went, for I

received seventeen pence, whilst before I had received only thirteen

pence per day; but I was far from feeling at home in this company, as

I lost all my old companions; and not only that, but I then stood six

feet one inch high, whilst not one man in that company stood more than

five feet seven inches. I made my complaint to the captain, who

promised that as soon as there was a vacancy, I should go back to my

old company, and that cheered me up a little, but made me look with

intense anxiety for the change back again.


Until it occurred, however, I had to change my abode, and live with

four privates of the same seventh company in a private house, the

landlady of which kept as nice a pig in her sty as I had ever seen in

the Peninsula. Close by our quarters was the officers' mess-room, the

sergeant of which had offered our landlady sixteen dollars for her

pig; but the old woman would not take less than eighteen; so instead

of giving that he offered the four men billeted with me the sixteen

dollars to steal it for him, in return for the old lady's craftiness,

as he had offered quite the fair value. The deed was done that very

night, the pig being conveyed out of sight to the mess room; and in

the morning, when the old lady had as usual warmed the pig's

breakfast, she found to her surprise the sty empty.


She soon made a terrible noise over the affair, and immediately

suspected the man who had offered to buy it; which soon got to his

ears, and obliged him to make away with it for a time, for fear of

being searched; so he got some of the men to heave it over a wall at

the back of the mess-room. The four men who had stolen it soon got

scent of this, and wishing to serve the sergeant out for his meanness,

and likewise have some of the pig, they went, unbeknown of course to

him, and cut off about a quarter of it, which they appropriated to our

own use, and brought back to be cooked in the old woman's house; so

that the sergeant had better have given the two more dollars, and come

by the whole pig honestly after all.


Some difficulty was experienced by my fellow-lodgers in cooking their

portion, as the landlady had generally before got their food ready;

but this was at length accomplished in our own private room, with a

kettle that we had borrowed from the old lady herself. I likewise had

a taste of the poor woman's missing pig, which we found to be very

good and acceptable. Fortunately, she never suspected us at all, but

often talked to us during our stay there, of her sad loss; and indeed

she was in general very kind to us, often going so far as to give us

some dried chestnuts, of which she had an abundance, for a treat.


After about three months' stay in this place, during which time my

captain to my great satisfaction found an opportunity of putting me

back to my own company, we marched to other quarters about three

leagues off, in a village which had been for the most part deserted,

and there we were cantoned, chiefly in empty houses. Whilst we were

here, a very interesting piece of excitement took place, in which one

of the officers of our company, a lieutenant, was the chief actor. He

was an Irishman, and being likewise a Catholic, had been in the habit

whilst staying at our late quarters of visiting a Catholic chapel; and

there he had seen and fallen in love with a Portuguese general's

daughter. Correspondence and meetings had followed, unbeknown to the

girl's parents, but owing to our shifting our cantonments, some

difficulty had arisen in the way of their engagements, and so I

suppose they thought it best to arrange one final one, or at any rate

one of which the memory was to last some time. One night, therefore,

he proceeded with two of our company to the lady's house, where all

arrangements had been previously made for conveying her from her

private window into her lover's arms, ready to elope with him.


These arrangements consisted of a ladder to be placed at a window,

and the goods that she intended taking to be ready on the back of a

horse, and were all carried out by two of the domestic men-servants

who had been bribed, and who also undertook to keep a good look-out

until the eloping party had got quite clear. But, as it proved, a

worse set of people could not have been entrusted with the matter, for

no sooner had they received their money, and the little company had

set out from the house on their way to the officer's quarters, than

the two foolish Portuguese servants immediately raised an alarm, and a

party of six, including these very servants, was sent in pursuit.


They soon overtook the travelling party, which was obliged to walk

slowly owing to the horse laden with the goods; and the pursuers being

armed with sticks, an altercation consequently took place, in which

the Portuguese succeeded in capturing the horse and baggage; but the

officer fought bravely for his spouse and was well backed up by his

men, so that he succeeded in carrying her off at any rate. One of the

Portuguese, however, lost two fingers in the affray, which was an

unfortunate circumstance, and after things had come to this crisis,

they left off their pursuit and went home contented in having captured

the horse and baggage. The lieutenant then succeeded in getting the

lady to the cantonments without any further molesting, and on the

following morning he took her to a neighbouring chapel and married



But the matter was not to rest here; for next morning the old general

wrote to our colonel on the subject, and said he intended to take

proceedings against the lieutenant for stealing his daughter, as he

called it. Our colonel informed the lieutenant that he was to consider

himself a prisoner, as in such times as these he ought to be thinking

of something else but marriage; but after a fortnight's consideration

the general gave in, and made it all up with his new son-in-law, who

was released and likewise had his wife's horse and baggage given back

to him. In return for his good luck he treated the whole of his

company to a pint of wine, which was drunk in toasts to the happy








     Breaking up of the cantonments and march into Spain -- Battle of

     Vittoria -- Lawrence's private performances in the fight -- Rout

     of the French -- Fatal blunder on the part of the officers --

     Lawrence refits himself with boots -- Buonaparte's carriage with

     its contents captured -- A fine take of mutton -- A good meal and

     night's rest after the battle -- Paddy's new ingredient for




We lay quite inactive in our cantonments until May, when preparations

for the ensuing campaign commenced in good earnest; and about the

middle of that month we left Portugal, bidding adieu to that kingdom

for ever, for we now hoped that the enemy would very soon be compelled

to quit the two shattered countries of the Peninsula, where we had

done so much, and of late done it with such success. Much more yet,

however, we found had to be accomplished before that hope could be

fulfilled, as I am now about to relate to the best of my ability.


We first commenced our march in a northerly direction, crossing the

River Douro in Portugal; and after about a fortnight's procedure

through almost insurmountable difficulties we arrived at Zamora, a

town in Spain, situated not more than twenty miles from the Portuguese

frontier on the north bank of the said river. The enemy had been

occupying it lately, but had abandoned it on our approach, so from

Zamora we followed them to a place called Valladolid, about seventy to

eighty miles off, and thence to Vittoria, a still longer march of at

least a hundred and sixty miles, during which some slight skirmishing

took place between the retreating and pursuing armies.


On nearing Vittoria we came up with the main body of the French posted

on some admirable heights, which they had made great use of to prepare

for a stubborn resistance: they not only having the advantage of the

heights, but we the attacking party having to cross a river below by

means of only narrow bridges, which was a great impediment to our



We arrived and encamped here on the 20th of June. On reconnoitring the

enemy's strong position much doubt was entertained as to our success,

our army being much fatigued after its tedious march and likewise

being very short of provisions. This latter circumstance caused many

to set off that night in search of something to eat; but the only

thing I with several comrades could find was some broad beans, and

those we had to gather for ourselves: we got a good many, but we were

certainly not out for them more than an hour altogether, as nearly the

whole of my party had to go on duty that night, and as it happened at

the general's own quarters, which were in a house which had been

deserted by its inhabitants. We occupied a kind of outhouse adjoining,

and having lit a fire in the centre and found a kettle belonging to

the house, we set to work and cooked a quantity of wheat that we found

stowed away there, and on that made a very good night's meal. I

likewise preserved a quantity and put it into my knapsack for a

favourite comrade who had been left in camp in charge of our beans;

but when I returned I found I need not have done that, for he had had

just as good a meal off the greater part of the beans as we had off

the wheat.


Next morning orders came to fall in under arms ready to advance and

attack the enemy's strong position. Our division, together with the

Third and Seventh, was ordered to advance against the centre of their

lines, so we had to bundle the remainder of our beans into our

knapsacks, for to use my comrade's expression, "it went hard to have

to leave any tommy behind in such times as these." Before we could get

at the enemy we had to cross a narrow bridge, which gave us some

trouble owing to the enemy's cannon, which played pretty sharply on

us: and a shell pitching into one of our ammunition waggons, it

immediately blew up, carrying with it two horses and the unfortunate

driver. But once on the other side of the river and formed into line

we were up and at them in spite of a murderous fire which they kept up

from their cannon. We soon neared them, fired, and then charged, and

succeeded in driving the centre over the hill. A column of their body

still appeared on our right, and we immediately received orders to

wheel in that direction; but the sight of us, together with the play

of our artillery on them, was quite sufficient to make them follow

their centre over the hill, whither we pursued them, but were unable

to come up with them.


I came across a poor wounded Frenchman crying to us English not to

leave him, as he was afraid of the bloodthirsty Spaniards: the poor

fellow could not at most live more than two hours, as a cannon-ball

had completely carried off both thighs. He entreated me to stay with

him, but I only did so as long as I found it convenient: I saw, too,

that he could not last long, and very little sympathy could be

expected from me then; so I ransacked his pockets and knapsack, and

found a piece of pork ready cooked and three or four pounds of bread,

which I thought would be very acceptable. The poor fellow asked me to

leave him a portion, so I cut off a piece of bread and meat and

emptied the beans out of my haversack, which with the bread and meat I

left by his side. I then asked him if he had any money, to which he

replied no, but not feeling quite satisfied at that, I again went

through his pockets. I found ten rounds of ball cartridge which I

threw away, and likewise a clothes-brush and a roll of gold and silver

lace, but those I would not give carriage to. However, I found his

purse at last, which contained seven Spanish dollars and seven

shillings, all of which I put into my pocket except one shilling,

which I returned to the poor dying man, and continued on my way up the



There I saw a French officer come out of a low copse close by, and

instantly fired at him, but without doing him any mischief. He made

his way up the hill as quickly as possible, using his sword as a

walking-stick, but a German rifleman who had been on the look-out cut

off his communication and succeeded in taking him prisoner. I did not

take any further notice of him, therefore, but proceeded along with my

company still in pursuit of the French, who were retreating in all

directions in a very disorderly state.


We might have taken hundreds of them prisoners had it not been for

our officers, who in their flurry had mistaken them for Spaniards; for

Lord Wellington had previously ordered the Spaniards to wear a piece

of white substance round their left arm to make some distinction

between the French dress and theirs, which was very similar; but the

French had got knowledge of this, and a great number of them, who were

obliged in their hurried retreat and on account of the difficulties of

the road to pass near our lines, had adopted the Spanish white band.

Still we fired at them both with muskets and artillery; but when the

officers perceived the white on their arms, without bestowing any more

consideration as to whether they were the enemy or the Spaniards, they

immediately stopped us from doing so. As soon as the French in passing

observed this, they sunk into the valley and piled arms as if they

were allies; and directly an opportunity afforded itself, they again

took up their muskets and fired right into our lines, doing terrible



I never in all the days of the campaign saw men in such a rage as ours

were with the officers. I really thought that some serious

consequences would ensue, but as it was, all fortunately passed off as

well as could be expected after such a mistake. For if this trick had

before been observed, we might have taken the whole body prisoners by

a direct movement of our right flank, as no other way lay open to

their retreat without their encountering great difficulties; but the

chance was now thrown away, and repairs could not be made of the

damage done; many in our line having lost their irrecoverable lives,

and others being more or less injured. We had only to make what

consolation we could from beholding the almost express pace of the

party as it retreated from where lay our comrades, either as groaning,

wounded, or shattered corpses.


After their signal defeat at Vittoria, scarcely anything was left open

to the French but to cross the Pyrenees into their own territory on

the other side. Numberless quantities of warlike instruments were

captured, such as cannons, muskets, cartridges, and all kinds of

ammunition, besides supplies for the army, food, clothing, and the

like, which were considering our need at the time of great benefit to

the Allies.


I myself had my feet new rigged after this affair, and it was

certainly not before I wanted a covering for them; there was certainly

a part of the upper leathers of my old pair of boots left, but the

chief part of the sole was my own natural one belonging to my foot. I

had some little difficulty in procuring them, however; I happened to

see a shoe-wagon that had been captured from the enemy and was being

fast emptied by a number of our men, so I asked the captain to let me

fall out, as my shoes wanted replenishing. He only answered, "No, not

until the enemy is fairly away, and then you may do as you please;" so

I had to disobey orders again, and on the next halt step off to the

wagon to see what I could find. There were, however, such a number on

the same errand that I began to despair of getting any boots, but at

length I succeeded in getting into the wagon, and I hove out a hundred

pairs or so to the mob, while I took up six or seven pairs for myself,

or rather some likewise for some of my comrades, in hopes of making

off with them quietly.


My hopes, however, were far from being fulfilled, for no sooner was I

off the wagon, than I was completely smothered with parties that

wanted and craved for boots equally with myself; so I had to let all

my lot go, finding that I could not get clear, and got back into the

wagon. Then I threw out another stock to the barefooted mob, and

replenished my own lot, this time, however, only getting five pairs,

and of these I did not succeed in getting off with more than three

after all.


I made back to my company thinking to be unobserved, but in that I was

again mistaken, for the captain himself seeing me called out, "You

will disobey orders then, will you? and what are you going to do with

all those shoes?" I told him I was going to put on a pair as soon as

possible, to which he replied, "Very well, sir, mind you give the rest

to your comrades;" which I did, as that had been my intention from the

first; if not, I should not have troubled to get more than one pair,

as on such marches as ours it was not likely that any man would care

to carry a change in boots, or of anything else but food, which,

though seldom denied to us, was more seldom obtained.


At Vittoria, too, Buonaparte's carriage was captured with some ladies

in it. The French army had retreated to Pampeluna, so Lord Wellington

sent a sergeant and twelve men under a flag of truce to escort these

ladies into the French camp at that place, in return for which

Buonaparte behaved very well, for he gave the sergeant a doubloon and

each of the men one-half of that sum, and had them escorted out of his

lines by a French officer.


Our army meanwhile pursued the enemy until night put an end to our

proceedings, when we encamped two or three miles west of Vittoria,

there remaining two nights and one day busily engaged on the forage

for ourselves. Happily thousands of sheep were found, that the enemy

had been obliged to abandon on their retreat. I had been fortunate

enough to get one and bring it into camp, and was proceeding to kill

it by putting my bayonet through the neck, when Lieutenant Kelly of

our company happening to pass, "Hullo, Lawrence," he said, "you seem a

capital butcher." I said, "Would you like a piece of it?" "I certainly

should very much," he answered, "for I am devilish hungry;" so I took

out my knife and cut off one of the quarters just as it was, without

even skinning it, and gave it to him, saying, "There, sir, you must

skin it yourself." He thanked me and said, "Never mind the skin, I

will manage that."


Not only myself, but several of my comrades had likewise managed to

get a share of these sheep, so that night a general cooking ceremony

commenced: our first movement being to go round and gather all the odd

sticks we could lay our hands upon, including gates, doors, chairs,

tables, even some of the window-frames being knocked out of the many

deserted houses and gathered together in one heap for this great

purpose; and in a very short time both roast and boiled mutton were

seen cutting about in all directions. Nor had we altogether forgotten

our former experience of the beans which were growing plentifully at

that time and place, and we found that night's meal as good a one as

we had tasted for some weeks past. After it was over we lay down for

the night,--a body picket having previously been sent out to guard

against any surprise from the enemy; but we lay very comfortable

without being disturbed the whole night, and as our fires did not

cease burning we kept very warm as well.


Next day was likewise chiefly spent by those off duty in search of

food, some returning with one or more of such articles as wheat flour,

cabbages, turnips, carrots, and beans. A fellow-corporal of mine

seeing this, and neither of us having been out, said, "Lawrence, I'll

go and try my luck too, and if the drums should beat for orders, you

go and get them for me, and then we can share the profits of my

search." I consented, and he soon went, and was gone for at least two

hours before he returned loaded with his findings, having taken his

shirt off and tied the sleeves and collar up, and then filled his

impromptu sack quite full. He had evidently carried his burden no

small distance, for on his return the perspiration was running down as

big as peas. "Tare an' 'ounds," poor Paddy said, for he was an

Irishman, "I've got a fine lot of flour, but am as tired as a dog, and

as hungry as a hunter." "Well done, Burke," said I, for that was his

name, "we will soon have a blow out of dough-boys and mutton."


I accordingly got a tin dish which I took from a Frenchman at

Vittoria, and having filled it with our supposed flour, I poured some

water on it, intending to make some balls of dough for the pot; when I

suddenly found Paddy had been making a great mistake and that it was

nothing more or less than lime that he had brought instead of flour. I

said, "I'll be bothered if you haven't brought home lime for flour;"

but Paddy would not believe it, saying it was the best white flour,

till I told him to come and see it boiling and smoking in the pot,

which quite confounded him, and taking up the remainder in his shirt

he hove it out, saying, "Well I'm blessed, comrade, if I ain't off

again, and I'll take good care not to come back again this time till I

have some good flour."


He had been gone about an hour when he returned with at least half

his shirt full, for he had got on the same scent as a great many who

had been before him and were now fast returning already loaded. I then

commenced making the dough-boys by mixing a little salt and water with

the flour, and put them into a kettle swung over a fire on two sticks

placed perpendicularly on each side with a cross-bar on the top,

gipsy fashion, and by night our supper was hot and well done. As is

perhaps well known, dough-boys cannot be very greasy without fat or

suet of any kind, but they were quite passable in the hungry state we

were then in, and as we had no bread, we used some more of the mutton

to help them down. Our fires were then made up the same as the night

before, and at the proper time we again retired to rest comfortably

and were soon lost in a profound slumber.







     Advance to the Pyrenees -- Capture and destruction of a

     provision train -- Unpleasant episode during Sunday service --

     The regiment takes up its position on the heights of Villebar --

     The enemy's attempts to dislodge them all successfully repulsed

     -- Sad death of a straggler -- Lawrence goes to get a watch-chain

     and has a narrow escape -- Exchange of wounded prisoners -- The

     French finally driven off the mountains -- The captain of the

     regiment presented with a testimonial at the French expense.



On the day after the adventure of the dough-boys we were again ordered

to march, and advanced towards Pampeluna; but that town being

garrisoned by the French, we passed it on our left, and proceeding for

some distance further west, encamped near some hills with strong

fortifications on their summit. There we lay a few days, and thence

arrived on the heights of Villebar in the Pyrenees in the latter part

of July, where we took up our position. Lord Wellington had extended

his army in a line along the Pyrenees which must have exceeded thirty

miles from the extreme left to the extreme right, and which would

owing to the difficulties of the mountain barriers have made it very

hard to combine in case of an attack in force by the enemy on any

particular part of our line. Thus in warfare such as has now to be

described we ran more risk than the French, who being able to form in

their own country and drive their body on any part of our line, had a

considerable advantage over us.


Our division, with a brigade of the Second and another division of the

Spanish, occupied the extreme right, covering Pampeluna. Very shortly

after our arrival the action commenced on our left; and meanwhile

suspicions were entertained that Soult intended to attack, so as to

reinforce and throw supplies into Pampeluna, which was being blockaded

by the Allies and in danger of capitulating owing to shortness of

provisions. Lord Wellington accordingly sent our division to a

particular pass of the mountains in search of the said supplies, and

after marching over hills, mountains, and valleys for at least thirty

miles, we at length fell in with about three hundred carts laden with

provisions and ammunition. They were guarded, however, by a strong

body of the enemy, who soon attacked us; but they met with a strong

reception, and after a severe altercation on both sides we succeeded

in capturing the booty.


Owing, however, to the difficulty of the country, and our not having

proper means of transportation, we were obliged to set fire to the

bread, of which there was a great quantity, although it was the very

substance of which we were so much in need. It went very much against

our will, but that being the order it had to be attended to; not,

however, before some of our men had stocked themselves with a portion

that could reasonably be moved. Then having placed the ammunition

together and extended a long train so that at any time it might be

easily blown up, we retired some distance and waited for the

reappearance of the enemy, who, most likely thinking we had abandoned

some of the carts, were not long before they came back in strong

force; and on their nearing the fatal machine the train was fired and

a great number of them were soon launched into the air. We retreated

after that as quickly as possible to Pampeluna out of reach of the

enemy, falling back that day at least twenty miles; a hard day's work

indeed, but not thought much of in those times, when equally hard days

were so often passed through, especially in a hasty retreat or on a

well-fought battlefield.


We again encamped for nearly a week, during which time we amused

ourselves in throwing up huts for officers' quarters, cooking-houses,

and the like; and we had settled down so nicely that we had almost

begun to think we were to be stationed there for at least six months.

But on the very next Sunday we found that we were mistaken and that

our hopes were to be disappointed. A square had been formed into which

a parson entered to read prayers and preach, and a drum being placed

for his books and a knapsack for him to kneel on, he had proceeded

with the service for some little time, when all of a sudden up he

jumped with his traps and made a bolt, before any one had hardly time

to see the cause, amid the applause and laughter of the whole of the

troops at his running, which was as fast as his legs could carry him,

and looked then as if the poor man might be going on even till now.

They used to say that the three scarcest things to be seen in an army

were a dead parson, drum-major, or a woman: the explanation of this

was to be found in the fact that they were none of them often to be

seen on a battlefield; and I think in this case our parson must have

told and frightened all the others in the kingdom, for never after

that did we have any service in the field.


But the cause of the sudden flight on the part of the parson proved

not to be one entirely of enjoyment, for a large body of the enemy

appearing, we likewise found ourselves running about pretty smartly

and preparing for immediate action. The affair lasted hotly till dusk,

our division losing some four or five hundred men. When night fell we

were obliged to retreat still further towards Pampeluna, leaving the

wounded, with the exception of two grenadiers who had been shot in the

thighs, and whom we took turns to carry in two blankets, in the

enemy's hands.


We had to get through a very thick wood of quite three or four miles

in extent, which took us the whole night to accomplish; and in the

morning when we were finally through, we lay down like so many loaded

donkeys; still obliged, however, to remain in readiness, as we

expected to be pursued. And soon enough we found we were, for we had

not lain down very long before the enemy came up and charged us hotly,

again forcing us to follow up our retreat, without even thinking this

time of our two wounded burdens, who were left to the mercy of the

enemy. In a few hours, however, we again joined the main army, or

rather got into its line; and pleased enough we all were to get back.


We were then posted in a strong position on the heights of Villebar

with the Spanish troops on our right. The French soon made their

appearance and attacked the Spanish corps, who fired at them long

before they came within bounds of shot, not having proper officers to

guide them; those that ought to have been leading them on having

instead placed themselves out of the way, leaving their men to do the

dirty work; and of course these latter soon decamped too. Our

regiment, however, was soon on the scene; and hastening in that

direction, we managed to get there before the enemy had gained the

summit of this important ridge. Orders had been issued by our officers

not to fire till we could do good work; but this soon came to pass,

for the French quickly sallied up and fired first, and we returned it

in less than a minute. I never saw a single volley do so much

execution in all my campaigning days, almost every man of their two

first ranks falling; and then we instantly charged and chased them

down the mountain, doing still further and more fearful havoc. When we

had done we returned to our old summit again, where the captain

cheered and praised us for our gallantry, saying that he had never

seen a braver set of men, and that he hoped we would always succeed in

preserving our ground equally well. Our likewise brave enemy tried

again two hours later to shift us and take possession of our ground;

but they were again received as before and again sent down the hill.

We were again praised by our commander, who said, "I think they have

got enough of it by this time, and won't make a third attack in a

hurry;" but we were mistaken, for four hours had not passed before

they were up again with fresh reinforcements. Some of our men then

seemed to despair, for I heard them even say to the officers who were

so bravely leading us on, "We shall have to be off this time." "Never

mind," replied the officers, "keep your ground if possible, and don't

let yourselves be beaten;" which we did like bricks, for on their

arrival and trying to outflank us, so that we were obliged to wheel

round to the left, the right flank opened fire as they were close upon

us, and instantly charged right into them with the bayonet, forcing

them to retreat.


They again fell up to support their other companies, who were

attacking our other flank; but we reloaded and were then ready to meet

them, again pouring another of our deadly volleys into their ranks and

then going at them again with our bayonets like enraged bulldogs. The

fight that ensued was most sanguinary, but we succeeded again in

driving them down the mountain at last. I should think they must have

numbered five to our one; in fact the whole of our fourth division was

attacked, but all assisted equally bravely in retaining our position

on the heights and earned great praise from our commanders. I do not

myself think, however, that we could ever have routed so large a

number of the French had it not been for our advantageous ground. Some

Portuguese troops likewise behaved very well, but as for the

Spaniards, I can safely affirm that after their first retreat I did

not see any more of them again that day.


We encamped that night on the same ground that we had so well

defended. Our captain, who was as nice a man as ever commanded in the

Peninsula, always seeming to share everything with the men and bear

the blunt as well as the smooth, and the losses as well as the

profits, now said, "Come, my brave men, turn to and cook yourselves

something to eat, for you have earned it well;" an order which we soon

set about to obey. A quantity of rum had been sent up for us, so we

were able to sit down tired as we were and enjoy ourselves as if

nothing extraordinary had occurred that day. We then sent out a picket

and prepared to take our rest for the night, the French not seeming

inclined to sally up any more to engage us on those heights.


When the returns were called off the list, we found our killed and

wounded amounted to seventy-four, but one more of our number was soon

to be added to the sum total. A comrade of my own company went in

search of sticks to liven up our fire: I told him to be careful and

not get in sight of the enemy's picket, or they might have a pop at

him, and he replied never fear, he would be careful; but the foolish

fellow had been gone but a few minutes, when he was shot through the

neck. Instead of keeping his own side of the hill, he had diverged on

to the other close enough to be observed by one of the enemy's

riflemen, who shot him as I have described. I happened to hear the

shot, and found that it had been at him, so I went and dragged him

back, pretty quickly as may be supposed, for I was fearful lest I

should be shot likewise myself. The poor fellow was not dead, but

exclaimed, "O corporal, I am a dead man!" When I had got him out of

the enemy's reach and near our own lines, I took his stock from off

his neck and he expired directly; so I had to leave him and rejoin our

company with the news that another of us was gone, making seventy-five

in all.


On the following morning I happened to observe an officer of the

French army moving at some distance in front of our lines, having

hanging from his pocket a fine watch-guard, which particularly took my

attention and which I thought at the time would look very well on me;

and being more daring than wise, I crawled towards him with my musket

loaded, and when near enough as I thought to him, I fired; but it did

him no mischief and only made him take himself off at once. I nearly

got into a scrape through it, however, for I was fired at myself in

return, the bullet fortunately only taking the butt end off my musket.

I turned to run off, and another shot hit the knapsack on my back, but

I soon got out of reach of their shot again, luckily, as it happened,

without any injury; but it must have been a near thing, for when I

next opened my knapsack, I found the ball had gone through the leather

and my thickly-folded blanket and had at last been stopped by the sole

of a shoe, and was lying there as flat as a halfpenny and about the

same size.


The same day we were joined by the Fifty-third regiment Lord

Wellington having sent it on to relieve us in case of another attack

from the enemy. They offered to occupy our heights, so that we might

fall back to the rear, but our captain would not consent to that;

"For," as he said, "my men have fought well to defend their position,

and I think they will be strong enough to keep it." He proposed,

however, that they should keep out an outlying picket, so that we

could take our rest, which would be the best way of relieving us, and

their commander readily agreed to do so.


Thus we passed two or three days, both armies remaining inactive. Then

one day a French officer was seen coming up the mountain, having laid

down his sword, so our captain sent a lieutenant who could talk good

French to meet him and see what he wanted. He found that he wished to

know if we would allow him to send for their wounded, so an agreement

was entered into that we should take all their killed and wounded

halfway down the mountain, and that they should meet us there with

ours in return. This plan was soon carried out; and when we had buried

our dead, the wounded were conveyed to hospitals appropriated to them

at the nearest convenient place.


All was still quiet on the following morning, but later in the day the

whole body of our line appeared in motion, and we were ordered in

company with the Fifty-third regiment to attack the enemy's post near

us, acting in conjunction with the other front of our line; and this

being done, we soon drove them right off the mountains. The Portuguese

troops in our division fought well in this action. We followed up the

retreating French to a village situated in a valley of the Pyrenees,

where they were delayed owing to having to cross a river. General Cole

immediately ordered our regiment up to stop them if possible; so off

we went in quick time to the river, and on their seeing they were so

quickly pursued and that there was no hope of escaping, they threw

down their arms and gave themselves up prisoners to the number of

about seven hundred.


We took a gold-mounted sword from their commander, and a gold plate

out of his cap with an eagle engraved on it, which were given to our

captain by the regiment as a present, as he was a universal favourite

for his behaviour to the men in general.


The prisoners were then sent to St. Jean de Luz to be put on board

ship, and so conveyed to England.







     Continued retreat of the French -- Narrow escape of Lord

     Wellington -- Lawrence volunteers to remove the danger -- Is

     successful, and earns the praise of Lord Wellington -- Repeated

     engagements with the enemy -- Lawrence, like most people who try

     to hedge, nearly comes to grief -- Capture of a bridge and

     village -- Lawrence, becoming lame, is left on guard over a

     Portuguese cottage -- Surprises and discomfits a French intruder

     -- Sad end of a hungry corporal -- Lawrence made sergeant.



We marched slowly on, following up the enemy as closely as possible,

often even having them in sight: and both armies were sometimes

encamped for a week at a time, and employed meanwhile in skirmishing

with each other.


At one of these halts the enemy by some means or other got three

pieces of cannon on to the top of a steep mountain, probably by men

dragging them up with ropes, as it was impossible for horses to have

done it; and on our entering the valley, Lord Wellington happening to

be with us, a shot from one of these carried his cocked hat completely

off. Our colonel remarked to him, "That was a near miss, my Lord;" to

which he replied, "Yes, and I wish you would try to stop them, for

they seem determined to annoy us." Our colonel immediately said he

would send some of the grenadiers up for that purpose, so I, being a

corporal and right-hand man of the company, volunteered with a section

to undertake the job. Six men were accordingly chosen besides myself;

rather a small storming-party for the object in hand, as they numbered

twenty-one artillerymen and an officer, according to my own counting.


I led my little band along the valley and approached the mountain

whence they were tormenting us. The artillerymen kept up a fire at us

from the cannon, which consisted of light six-pounders, but owing to

our movement they could not get the elevation. We slowly scaled the

hill zigzag fashion to baffle their aim, until we got so close that

the cannon could not possibly touch us, owing to a slight mound on the

hill. We were then within a hundred yards of them, and I took their

number, and found at the same time that they had no firearms with them

but the cannon, which were of not much use at close quarters for such

a few men. I should say we lay there on the ground for at least ten

minutes, contemplating which would be the best mode of attack, while

they were anxiously watching for our reappearance.


At last when ready I said, "Now my men, examine your flints and

priming, so that all things may go right." They did so, saying, "All

right, corporal, we will follow you;" so I too sang out, "Now for a

gold chain or a wooden leg!" and having told them what to do and to

act together, we jumped up, and giving them a volley, we charged them

before they had any time to take an aim at us, and succeeded in

gaining the cannon and driving the men down the mountain to a body of

their infantry that was stationed at the foot. I immediately made a

signal with my cap for our brigade to come up, for they were all ready

and on the watch, but we found that the enemy's infantry was likewise

on the move for our height. Fortunately, our brigade was the first to

arrive, and reinforced us on the mountain, and on seeing this the

enemy decamped. By great luck not one of my men was injured, whilst

our volley killed or badly wounded five of the artillerymen.


After the enemy's retreat, the colonel came up to me and said, "Well

done, Lawrence; I did not think you were half so brave, but no man

could have managed it better." He likewise praised my six

fellow-stormers, and a short time afterwards Lord Wellington himself

came up and asked me my name, and on my telling him, said, "I shall

think of you another day."


These three cannon, which were composed of brass, were now the only

ones we possessed, as owing to the difficult nature of our route our

own had been obliged to be left behind; even the cavalry being of very

little use in this mountain warfare. Soon after this daring feat of

ours, the enemy again commenced their retreat, we still following

close up to them; but after proceeding some two miles, we found they

had again halted and were occupying another mountain; so we sank into

the valley, and made ourselves as comfortable for the time as we could

under the circumstances. We had no tents, and even if we had, we could

not have pitched them so close to the enemy, so at night we curled

ourselves well into our blankets and retired to rest on the ground.


Finding next morning that they apparently did not mean to renew their

retreat without being made to do so, we tried the experiment; but that

day we were defeated in our object, for again, like the fatal fox and

grapes, we could very well look at them but could not get them down.

We accordingly brought up by the mountain again that night, and those

who were not amongst the number told off for picket, which was large

as we were so near the enemy, again retired to rest in their blankets.

But next morning, not feeling contented with their prolonged stay, or

with our attack of the day before, which had only failed to move them,

we again assailed them; this time with success, for we drove them from

that mountain and pursued them till they again halted. We followed

their example, and then we lay again for several days, getting good

and undisturbed rest every night, and only having to send out a picket

so as to guard against any surprise from the enemy, this duty, of

course, falling equally on all in their turn.


I think it was about the third day that we were put into advancing

order and were again led on to the attack. When we got within a few

paces, we gave them our usual volley, and made our charges, which they

did not long stand against before they again started on a slow

retreat, we always keeping pretty close to their heels and being very

often occupied in skirmishing with them.


I was engaged myself in one of these affairs that happened during a

short stay that we made. A small body of us were out under a sergeant,

an Irishman named Ryan, and observing a large force with some of the

enemy lurking around the premises, we made towards it and drove these

few off the place, after which four or five more came out of the house

on our approach and decamped. We entered and found a pig there just

killed; but the butchers had evidently not had time to open it, so we

set about taking our turn to do so, but were not allowed time to

finish the job, for we now perceived a large body of French fast

coming up, and we in our turn were obliged to retreat. Sharp enough

work it was for us, too, for they had got within bounds of shot, and

certainly did not fail to make use of it, following us up and firing

at us across a meadow, which I can well remember was surrounded by a

very thick thorn hedge, which delayed us very much, as we had to jump

over it; and I not being much of a jumper myself, managed to find

myself in the middle of it. It was a very prickly berth, and became

more so when our sergeant, who had got clear himself, came to my

assistance to pull me through. I got scratched all over, but that was

not so bad as the thought of the bullets that were peppering through

the hedge on all sides of me; however, I was extricated at last,

though I left most of the back part of my uniform behind, and we

proceeded at full speed on our way. We had not gone far, however, when

our poor sergeant was shot down. He appeared quite dead, but I did not

stop, for they kept on stoutly pursuing us until they began to be

afraid of getting too close to our line, which by this time had made a

forward move, both our army and the enemy likewise being still on the

march, and we skirmishing with their rear.


At one time we came on about two hundred of their stragglers, and we

fortunately numbering very strongly, were enabled to engage them and

drive them back. Soon after this I had another very narrow escape. One

of the enemy had lain in ambush in a thicket at the top of a mountain

where I myself was straggling. I had no one near me at the time, and

this fellow in the bush fired at me. The shot first took the ground

and then bounded up against my brass breastplate, which was fixed on

my cross-belt, and probably served on this occasion to save my life.

The Frenchman, as soon as he had spent his shot, bolted; I had my own

musket loaded at the time, but I did not think of firing, but

proceeded after him with all my speed till I came up with him. I did

not think I could run so fast. I have made Frenchmen run before, but

it was generally after me. When he saw he was outdone he showed very

poor pluck, for he immediately threw down his arms and gave himself up

to me. If he had had any spirit he would not have done that so easily;

though certainly I was loaded, while he was not, having, as I before

said, exhausted his shot, owing to my plate, however, I am happy to

say, without doing me the slightest injury.


I then began to strip him of his accoutrements and ransacked his

knapsack, but I was sadly disappointed in finding nothing about him;

so I took his musket and broke the stock, and left him, not feeling

inclined to be troubled with a prisoner, or to hurt the man in unfair

play. And I likewise felt quite pleased at my narrow escape, as those

sort of things often served as topics of conversation during our night

lounges when we were in pretty quiet quarters. The man himself seemed

very grateful that I did not hurt him after his offence; and the more

so when I returned him his not-fit-for-much kit in his knapsack,

nothing of his, in fact, being damaged except his musket; and he

walked away with an air of assurance, without appearing to be in any

hurry or afraid of being overtaken by any other of our men.


I then went on in search of my comrades, who had by this time left the

mountain for the neighbouring valley, and after running down the

slope, I found them posted in a house situated at the bottom. They had

been in search of provisions, but all they found was a cask of sweet

cyder, the French having evidently been there before us and the place

having been ransacked of everything but this. We drank as much as we

wanted and put the rest into our canteen, but we were greatly

disappointed in not finding anything to eat, for we were dreadfully

hungry and very short of provisions.


However, after we had refreshed ourselves with the cyder, at which our

officer helped us, he ordered us to be getting on, or rather led us on

himself to a small village about half a mile off, which we knew was

occupied by some French. We found that a river intervened between us

and this village, with a bridge over it guarded by about two hundred

of the enemy; and a long lane had likewise to be traversed before we

got up to them, in passing through which several of our men were

wounded either by some of the enemy lying in ambush or by stragglers.

Still we did not take long altogether in arriving at the bridge, and

when there, having our firelocks all ready, we opened fire and then

charged; but our attack was in vain, for we were met and overpowered

and obliged to retreat behind a large hill at a short distance from

the bridge. In the course of this short action I saw the French

officer's horse shot from under him, but whether he was injured

himself I cannot say.


We rested a short time behind this hill, and came to a determination

to make another attack on the bridge. This time we met with more

success, for though we only effected it after a long and severe brush,

we made them retreat, leaving the hard fought for but really

insignificant bridge in our possession. We found nearly thirty of the

enemy lying there killed and wounded, while we only lost about fifteen

in all. But we did not delay over our captured bridge, for the blood

of victory once in our veins, we pressed on for more and traced them

down, continually firing as we passed through the village.


Unfortunately I sprained my foot here, which disabled me from

following, and a Portuguese inhabitant having asked our officer to

let one of our men stay in his house to guard it from plunder whilst

we remained in or near the village, the officer said to me, "Corporal

Lawrence, you may as well stay with the man as you are so lame, and it

will do to give you a rest." The company was to go back to the house

where the cyder had been found, so I was rather glad of this

occurrence, as I calculated I should get more attention paid me than

if I had been with my comrades. I accordingly seated myself near the

door of the man's house, and he soon brought me about a pint of wine

with a piece of bread, for which I was very grateful, as I was very

hungry and the wine proved to be much more to my taste than my

previous ration of cyder.


I had not been sitting there long, however, before I heard a heavy

footstep descending the staircase of the house, and on looking up,

found it belonged to a Frenchman who had been up there for the purpose

of plunder, and was now coming away with a good-sized bundle of clean

linen under his arm. When he saw me he immediately bolted out of a

back door which led into a field. I made a desperate plunge at him

with my bayonet, but owing to my bad foot I could not get near enough

to him to hurt him; still I managed to stop his burden, for he had

forced that against the bayonet to shield himself from it. As soon as

I could extricate my musket, I hobbled as quickly as I could to the

back door and sent a bullet after him; but he had got some distance

away, and I cannot say exactly whether I hit him; though I think it

broke his arm, for I saw it drop immediately, and his motion became

more slackened as he passed out of sight, which contented me as much

as if I had killed him.


I then went back into the house and blew the Portuguese up for not

keeping a better watch than to let a Frenchman find his way upstairs,

as he might have killed us both. The Portuguese said he did not know

how he got up there, neither did he very much care so long as he was

gone now. I told him I thought he was a very easy-going customer, and

pointed out that I had saved his linen for him, and his wife took it

upstairs again as if nothing had happened, he likewise remarked that

there was no fear of the Frenchman having taken any money, for he had

none. He then gave me some more bread and wine, and when I had stopped

two or three hours longer, during which time I drank the wine and

stowed the bread into my haversack till I should feel more inclined to

eat it, I left them, not feeling altogether safe there, as the enemy

might very likely fall back. I returned over our well-deserved bridge

to the cyder-house, as we had named it after the barrel we had found

there. On my arrival my comrades seemed to smell out my bread, and

they came and hovered round me like bees while I divided it as well as

I could, for I was not hungry myself, and it was soon devoured.


We only stayed about two or three hours longer at this house until

the army came up, and we again joined our different regiments. We

halted near this place for the night, and our butchers commenced work

killing bullocks for our supply. I think scarcely a drop of blood was

wasted, for even that was caught in our kettles and boiled and eaten,

and was found to be very good. Each sergeant had to send in his return

for the meat required for his company, at the rate of two pounds for

each man; and when he had received it, the cooking immediately



This was the last cooking that my fellow-corporal Burke, whom I have

referred to before, ever took part in. But before relating how that

happened I may as well mention that the butchers were entitled as a

sort of perquisite to the bullocks' heels, which they sometimes sold.

Burke bought two of these at this place for fifteenpence, and began

cooking them in a somewhat peculiar manner, being either too hungry or

too impatient to cook them properly by boiling. What he did was to put

them on the fire to fizzle just as they came from the butcher, not

even cleaning them, or taking any of the hair off; and every now and

then he would gnaw the portion off that he thought was done, in order

to get the underdone part closer to the fire. In this way he finished

both the hocks, and for a time seemed satisfied, evidently thinking he

had had a good supper.


But he had not counted on his digestion, for having eaten so much on

an empty stomach, and that too almost raw and mixed with a fair amount

of soot, for the fire was not altogether clear, it was not long before

he felt it begin to disagree with him, and he commenced to writhe

about and was in fearful agonies all night. The doctor of the regiment

was sent for, but he could do nothing for the man, and in the morning

he was no better. We were then ordered to follow up the enemy, so that

he had either to march on in this state or be left behind. He chose

the former, so I got him along by helping him for about a mile, when

he suddenly without saying a word to any one fell out of the ranks,

lay down on a bank by the roadside, and expired in a few minutes. I

was very much hurt at this, for he was one of my best comrades, but

there was no help for it, and we had to leave him and march on.


We did not come in contact with the enemy at all that day, and

encamped for the night, as we thought, but it afterwards proved to be

for nearly a fortnight. Towards the end of that time, our captain, who

was my best friend in the whole regiment, rejoined us, having been

left behind owing to a slight wound which he had received while on

the march three or four weeks previously, but of which he had now

quite recovered. Our company was at that time very short of sergeants,

for which I shall afterwards account, so he recommended my promotion

to fill one of the vacancies to the colonel, who gave him a written

order for the purpose, and I was put into the place of poor Ryan. I of

course was very proud of my new title, and not only that, but I

received one shilling and elevenpence pay per day, being an additional

sixpence on what I had formerly.







     The regiment refitted with clothing and provisions at St. Jean de

     Luz -- Comments by Lawrence on the shameful behaviour of certain

     sergeants of his regiment -- Marches and countermarches in the

     mountain passes -- Lawrence temporizes as cook in behalf of his

     officers, and is rewarded with an extra allowance of rum -- A wet

     night -- Fall of San Sebastian -- Lawrence acts as medical

     adviser to his captain and gets more rum -- Battle of the Nivelle

     and the French driven well into their own country.



Very shortly after my promotion we were ordered to St. Jean de Luz,

where we received new clothes, and high time it was that we did so

too, for our old ones were scarcely worth owning as rags and fearfully

dirty, the red of them having turned almost to black. I ought to have

received a sergeant's suit, but owing probably to the quartermaster's

obstinacy I only got a private's, the same sort as I had had before.

Here we likewise received a good supply of bread and rum, which seemed

to us like a new and even a luxurious diet.


I may as well here give the details about the sergeants of our

regiment. I was the only one in my company where there ought to have

been six when I was promoted, so the whole duty fell heavily on me.

The rest had been wounded at some time or other before, and then never

pushed on much to get back to their regiment; many when recovered

preferring to skulk in the hospitals in paltry situations such as

doorkeepers or ward-masters, so getting a little extra pay, and then,

as I shall again have occasion to show, being too ready to make their

appearance when the war was over. Fortunately, however, they then met

with no great encouragement. They had really plenty of opportunity to

follow up the regiment if they had chosen, but I suppose they thought

they were best off out of the smell of powder, and probably they were,

but still that does not throw a very creditable light on them.


After we had received our clothes and provisions, we did not lie long

at St. Jean de Luz, but again started on our marches, cruising about

in the Pyrenees. For some time nothing of any particular note occurred

until we again fell in with the enemy, who were stationed in huts

which they had erected in the various valleys. We attacked them, and

some sharp work ensued, for they did not seem to like the idea of

abandoning their houses, which were much more comfortable than the

open winter air, but we at last drove them off and took possession of

their habitations, which a part of our army occupied. As for our

regiment itself, we marched up the side of a mountain and encamped



We again found ourselves very short of provisions there, and besides

that the rain was falling in torrents all night. We had nothing over

our heads at first to cover them, so we set to and gathered a quantity

of grass, sticks, stubble, and like things, and made a kind of wall to

keep off a little of the wind and beating rain; and then we tried to

make up our fires with anything we could get together, but owing to

the wetness of the substances, they were not very lively, and it was a

long time before we could get them to burn at all.


Our captain asked me if I could boil him a piece of beef, so I told

him I would try and see what I could do to make the best of the bad

circumstances, and accordingly I and a corporal of my company at once

set to work, first placing our hanger over the fire and then swinging

the kettle on it with the beef. The beef nearly filled the kettle, and

though it was pouring with rain, it was a very awkward place to get

water, as there were no springs near and no tanks to catch the rain

in; consequently we had only about a quart of water in the pot, which

had all boiled away before the beef was done. However, the captain was

impatient for his supper, so it was taken up to him as it was, the

pot-cover serving as a dish and a wooden canteen as a plate. I put it

before him with salt on the edge of the canteen, and I likewise got

him a piece of bread, which by the time he had it was nicely soaked by

the rain--indeed we had not a dry thread on us by this time. The next

bother was for a fork: I had a knife myself, but had lost the fork, so

I got a stick and sharpened it at one end and gave him that as a

substitute, and was rewarded by his praising me for my good



Colonel Thornton coming up meanwhile, he was invited by the captain to

partake of some of the beef, and he gladly accepted, as he said he was

very hungry; so another plate, knife, and fork were wanted. I borrowed

my comrade the corporal's canteen and knife, and manufactured another

fork like the former to serve for the colonel, and they both said the

beef was very good, but not very well done, which it certainly was

not, for though it went down sweet like most things in those times,

the inside was certainly hardly warm.


The colonel sent me to the quartermaster for a canteen of rum, which

was equivalent to three pints, for which purpose another canteen had

to be borrowed, but when I returned to him with it he said, "That's

right; now go and drink it." I took it off to my comrade, and we both

sat down under our artificial wall close by our fire to try and enjoy

ourselves as best the inclemency of the weather would allow us,

keeping, however, near our officers' green-carpeted nature's

dining-room, so that if we were wanted we could hear them call. But

when they did so, which was in a short time, it was for us to clear

away, with orders at the same time to keep the remainder of the beef

for ourselves; so we removed our dinner traps, passing a good many

remarks in a jocular spirit on our green pasture, wet cloth, and our

scientific dishes, plates, knives, and forks, much to the amusement of

the colonel and captain who were looking on, and then sat down to our

own supper, which we very much needed. I remember remarking to my

comrade that we had not done so badly over our cooking after all, but

perhaps it was only the hunger that made us think so. After finishing

our supper and drinking the greater part of our rum, which no doubt

got to a certain extent into our heads and served to keep out the cold

and wet and make us generally comfortable, we curled ourselves into

our blankets and lay down on the wet ground to rest.


The rain descended in torrents all night and completely soaked us,

but the morning broke out clear, and after we had disposed of the rest

of our beef and rum, we joined all hands at work in wringing and

shaking the water out of our blankets before putting them up into our

knapsacks. We were obliged to do this while they were damp for fear of

an attack from the enemy, it being a general rule to keep all in

readiness; and, indeed, on this occasion it was not more than an hour

after these preparations that the French assailed us. Not being

willing to show fight, we retreated on that occasion, having nothing

to attend to but ourselves and our kit, for we were without baggage

and cannon. After a ten miles' journey or so we again halted expecting

to be attacked again very soon, for which emergency we hastily

prepared, needlessly, as it proved, however, for we eventually stopped

here quietly for a month.


During this time that I have been speaking of the siege of San

Sebastian had been going on, the town having up to this time been

already attacked twice, but without success. Lord Wellington now

ordered twenty men out of each regiment of our division to act in

conjunction with the besiegers, and soon after they arrived, the order

being given to attack, after about two hours' fighting they succeeded

in capturing the town and driving the garrison into the castle, which

was likewise obliged to surrender in about a week. Though there were

many deaths occasioned in this siege, strange to say the whole twenty

men of our regiment returned unhurt.


I remember during our stay here, our captain was fearfully troubled

with the toothache. At last one night, after trying in vain to endure

the pain, he came to me and said, "O sergeant, I am still troubled

with the pain! What can you advise me for it?" I recommended him just

to take a pipe of my tobacco, for I knew that would be a good thing

for him, but he never could bear tobacco, so that it wanted a good

deal of persuasion to at last make him consent to prefer the remedy to

the pain. As he had no pipe of his own, I supplied him with the

implement and some tobacco, and he began to smoke. But he had not been

at it long before he said, "Why, sergeant, this will never do! The

place seems whirling round. Here, take the pipe, for I feel precious

queer; but my tooth is much better, and after all you are not such a

bad doctor." He gave me half a pint of rum, and for a long time I

heard nothing more of his toothache.


We stayed here, as I said before, about a month, and then again moved

on after our enemy, our cavalry, pontoon bridges, and artillery coming

on by the most convenient passes of the mountains. While on the march

we often had slight skirmishes with the enemy, but no regular pitched

battle until we came to the Nivelle, where Soult had taken up a strong

position. There our army halted in line, determined to attack and

proceed if possible into France, as nothing more remained to be done

in the Peninsula, Pampeluna having been obliged, owing to shortness of

provisions, to surrender on the last day of October.


The Third, Fourth, and Seventh divisions, under Marshal Beresford and

their respective generals, occupied the right centres of the line. We

commenced the attack early on the 10th of November on a village which

was defended by two redoubts. One of these our division took under

General Cole, driving the enemy to some heights in the rear, where we

again attacked them and drove them over the Nivelle.


After this we went into cantonments for a few weeks, but owing to the

unsettled state of the French army who had attacked our left, and

then, having failed, had proceeded against our right which was

commanded by Sir Rowland Hill, Lord Wellington ordered the Sixth and

our division to reinforce the right. We only arrived there, however,

just in time to hear that the action was all over, the defeat of the

enemy and their enforced retreat still further into their own country

having been accomplished without our assistance.







     Advance to Orthes -- Lawrence moralizes again on the vicissitudes

     of war -- Losses of his own regiment during the campaign --

     Proclamation by Lord Wellington against plunder -- Passage of the

     Adour -- Battle of Toulouse -- Casualties in Lawrence's company

     -- Sad death of a Frenchman in sight of his home -- The French

     evacuate Toulouse -- News arrives of the fall of Napoleon --

     Lawrence on ambition -- The army ordered to Bordeaux to ship for




After remaining inactive for the most part during the rest of 1813

and until the February of the next year, we again made an attack on

the French, who were lying near a village of which I do not remember

the name, and drove them behind a river. There they took up a fresh

position, but retained it only two or three days, again shifting and

opening a way for us to proceed on our way to Orthes.


And so after nearly six years of deadly fighting, we had got clear out

of Spain and Portugal and carried the war into our enemy's very

kingdom. Portugal and Spain had long had to contain the deadly

destroyers, but now the tide was changed, and it was the inhabitants

of the south of France who were for a time to be subjected to the

hateful inconveniences of war. They had little expected this turn in

their fortunes: Napoleon had even at one time had the ambitious idea

of driving us out of the Peninsula, but he now found us forcing his

own army into its own country: he had at one time thought that he

would subdue Europe, but had while labouring under that error been

subdued himself.


And all this was very much to our gratification, for we had long been

looking forward to this result, being entirely sick of Spain. As for

those places which had become so famous through us, we could not help

thinking and referring back to the many comrades we had left there in

their cold graves. Since our regiment had left for Ireland on this

expedition nine hundred strong, fifty-one hundred men had joined us

from our depôt, but at the time of our march to Orthes we did not in

spite of this number more than seven hundred. I do not mean to say

that we lost all these in battle, though I can safely say we did the

greater part, either killed or badly wounded: but of course many must

be reckoned who fell by disease, or as some did from their own

drunkenness or gluttony, assisted by the inclemency of the climate;

nor must those skulkers, of whom there must have been so many through

the whole campaign, be forgotten.


Lord Wellington had watched with hatred the many excesses committed by

the enemy on the Portuguese and Spanish inhabitants during the late

campaign, and had determined, now he had carried the war into France,

to set them for the future a better example; and accordingly he issued

a proclamation that no plundering was to be carried on, on pain of

death, which was much to the credit of our noble commander.


We arrived in France at a wrong time of the year to see its beauties,

but from what I could then judge it abounded in elegancies and

varieties of taste, such as vineyards, oranges, pomegranates, figs,

and olive-trees to any extent, not altogether unlike the productions

of Spain.


On nearing Orthes, we found the French had taken up a very strong

position on a range of fine heights stretching from Orthes to St.

Boes, and we were ordered in conjunction with the Seventh division to

cross a river and attack the latter place, which had one of the

heights occupied by the enemy at the back of it, giving them a

commanding view of the place. Some delay was occasioned at the river,

for there being no bridge, a pontoon was obliged to be thrown across;

but this being accomplished, our divisions were soon over it, and

being joined by a brigade of cavalry and artillery, we formed line and

marched on St. Boes. The village was stoutly defended by the enemy,

who on our nearing them fired briskly at us, for a long time standing

their ground and trying hard to retain their charge; but they soon

found they had sharp taskmasters to deal with, for our troops of the

Fourth division under General Cole poured in on them like lions, and

forced them after a violent resistance to start out of the place and

take refuge on their strong heights.


We followed them up, but found that there they were for a long time

more than a match for us, as they had such an advantage in the ground.

We rushed up the formidable heights, but were again and again driven

back by the fearful play of the enemy's artillery, the position being

only accessible in a few places, and those so narrow that only a small

body could move on them at once. But even with these disadvantages and

the enemy's cannon playing on them our men, after receiving fresh and

strong reinforcements, carried the heights; and not only this, but the

whole of the army having been similarly engaged on the right, had

meanwhile succeeded in driving the enemy from their lines there,

capturing a great number of prisoners in their retreat, the cavalry

pursuing them closely; and some field-pieces were likewise taken.


The enemy then fell back on the River Adour, the allied army soon

following and engaging them in slight attacks in various parts of the

line, till at last the French again took up a position on the heights

near the town of Tarbes, on the said river; but they did not stay long

there, being soon driven away by the Allies and retreating towards St.

Gaudens. Thence they were again driven with great loss to themselves

and a very trifling one to the Allies, this time to Toulouse on the

Garonne, where they stood on the defensive on some more heights on the

right bank of the river with every assailable part strongly fortified.


Some difficulty was met with in our march, owing to the chief of the

bridges being destroyed and having to be replaced by pontoons, and

those that were not destroyed being strongly fortified. One of these

was guarded by some French cavalry, whom we annoyed very considerably

by our fire as we approached them, having in case of their making an

attack on us a fine artificial ditch to fall back into where it was

next to impossible that they could get at us; our fire was made more

daring by our knowing there was a body of hussars waiting out of their

sight, ready to fall on them if they moved on us. We soon enticed out

a body of about three hundred, who crossed the bridge under our

retreating and destructive fire, and on their near approach we fell

into our ditch, while at the same time our cavalry came up, and some

close shaving ensued, a large quantity of spare heads, arms, legs, as

well as many horses being soon strewn about the ground.


But this was not the worst part of our day's work, for after they had

been tumbled back over the bridge, our division came up and we

followed them right up towards their heights, keeping Toulouse some

distance to our right. Before we reached the heights, however, we had

to attack and carry a small village they were occupying. This was the

commencement of the action of that bloody day which cost the armies on

both sides numbers of their best men. It was fought on the Easter

Sunday of 1814.


From the village we proceeded over some difficult ground to attack

their right under a brisk fire from their artillery, so brisk, indeed,

that one of General Cole's orderlies had his horse shot under him; and

then we formed line and dashed up the hill, which was defended by some

thousands of the French, nearly half of whom were cavalry. We soon

returned their fire, which at that time was a perfect storm of grape

and canister, and directly we got near we charged them, but in vain,

as owing to the sudden appearance of some of their cavalry we had to

halt and form square: and indeed we must have been routed altogether

by their combined infantry and cavalry, had not our Rocket Brigade

stepped forward and played fearful havoc among their cavalry, driving

them back. I had never before seen this rocket charge and have never

either since; by all appearance it was most successful in this case,

for it soon turned them to the right-about, and made them retreat.


The Spaniards were chiefly engaged on our right, and I never saw them

fight better, for they seemed on this occasion as determined as the

British: and indeed of the two they suffered most, as the French,

knowing them to be cowards, thought they would be certain of some

success in that quarter, but they stood their ground well, only a few

of their number getting into confusion.


When once we had gained this advantage and taken a part of their

heights, our artillery joined us, and their play together with our

action soon made the French fall back on their works at Toulouse,

whilst we remained on our newly won height overlooking Toulouse and

there encamped. I remember well the loss of a man in my company in

this action, who had entered the army during the war for a period of

seven years at first, and this period having expired for some time, he

was mad to be out of these constant scenes of bloodshed and conflicts,

but owing to the continuation of the war he had not been allowed to

depart. He was not the only one in this plight, for there were

thousands of others like him in the army, and several in my own

company alone. Sixteen guineas had been offered to each for their

services for life, and many had accepted, while many had refused, and

of course amongst the latter was the man of whom I am speaking. His

name was William Marsh, and he was a native of Bath in Somerset. He

was by trade a tailor, and earned many a shilling at his trade in the

army from various of his comrades who employed him. As I said, the

poor man was sick of war, and before entering this very action had

been wishing he could have both his legs shot off, so that he might be

out of the affair altogether; little expecting that it might really be

the case, or nearly as bad, for he had not been in action long before

his wish was accomplished, as he was shot through the calves of both

his legs by a musket-ball which took him sideways and pierced right

through. Poor Marsh did begin to sing out most heartily, and I

couldn't help saying, "Hullo there, Marsh, you are satisfied now your

wish is fulfilled, I hope." He begged and prayed me to move him out of

the thick of the fight, so I dragged him under a bank and there left

him, and from that time till now I never saw or heard anything more of

him. He was far, however, from being mortally wounded, though perhaps

from neglect it may have turned to something fatal.


Another of our comrades in the front of our line had his foot

completely smashed by a cannon-ball pitching right on to it, yet he

managed to hobble to the rear in that state on his heel. I felt quite

hurt for this poor fellow, who was a brave soldier, and seemed to be

enduring great agonies.


Night having drawn in, all firing ceased, and the men set to examine

the ground they had gained, chiefly to find firewood. I happened to be

about when I came across a Frenchman who had been badly wounded and

had crawled under a bank: I went up to him and asked him if I could do

anything for him. He had been shot in the stomach, and when he asked

for water and I gave him some out of my canteen, which was nearly

full, of which he drank heartily, in a very short time it only fell

out again through his wound. But the most astonishing thing was that

he pointed me out his father's house, which was as far as I could

judge about half a mile off, and said that he had not seen his parents

for six years, for since he had come back to this place, he had not

been able to fall out to go and see them. He begged me to take him so

that he might die there in the presence of his parents, but I told him

I could not do that, as there were a quantity of French there.

However, I got an old blanket and wrapped it round him, making him as

comfortable as I could under the circumstances, and seemingly much

better resigned to his fearful fate, and then I left him and returned

to my own place of repose, and after eating my supper and drinking my

allowance of grog, I wrapped my own blanket round me, lay down, and

was soon unconscious in sleep. I woke early in the morning, and having

nothing particular to do, I crept out of my blanket and put all things

straight; and then, more out of curiosity than from any other motive,

proceeded to the poor Frenchman to ascertain if he was yet living;

but his death must have taken place some hours before, as he was quite

cold and stiff.


The loss of the Allies in this conflict was over four thousand in

killed and wounded, more than two thousand being of the British,

whilst that of the enemy was upwards of three thousand. But then there

must be considered the advantageous ground they fought on, and the

fearful havoc they made in our ranks before we were able to return a



Lord Wellington now finding that Toulouse would not surrender, ordered

fortifications to be thrown up for the reduction of that place, but

they proved to be unneeded, for in the dead of the night the French

disappeared from the place and retreated in a south-easterly direction

towards Villefranche. We were soon following them up, and part of our

army had slight skirmishes with them, but we never again saw their

main body in that part of their country, for a day or two after our

move from Toulouse the news came of Buonaparte's overthrow and the

proclamation of peace, Buonaparte himself having been sent to the

island of Elba. This was indeed good news for most of our troops:

certainly for the young officers it took away many chances of

promotion, though it made death less likely as well; but ambition

sometimes leads a man a long way out of his course, and very often

adds tenfold to his sorrow. After the arrival of this welcome news, we

encamped for three or four days longer to give our commander time to

form his next plans. We were then ordered to Bordeaux to ship for our

isles, the Spaniards and Portuguese being sent to their own country.







     General delight at the end of the war -- March to Bordeaux --

     Kind reception of the troops by the inhabitants of the country on

     the way -- Particular good fortune of Lawrence -- Great attention

     on the part of his host -- A magnificent dinner -- Singular

     effects of a campaign on Lawrence's taste for feather-beds -- He

     tells of moving accidents, &c., &c., and excites the pity of his

     hostess -- Two men sentenced to be flogged, but begged off by the

     inhabitants of the town -- Arrival at Bordeaux -- Encampment on

     the Garonne -- Fraternizing of the natives and the troops --

     Good times in camp -- Sudden influx of skulkers, who, however,

     receive but as poor a welcome as they deserve.



Things now seemed to assume an entirely different aspect, indeed to

take a new birth altogether. All were in a most joyous state, and none

more so than the Spaniards, who were always only too ready to give up

fighting. The Portuguese had always shown themselves the better race

in the field of action, but they likewise now enjoyed the thought of

returning to their own country, although it had been so pillaged. I

had many a long conversation with stragglers of both these nations

before we started on our long march, and so I had an opportunity of

studying their thoughts on the subject.


We did not seem to be in any hurry to quit the country before

everything was thoroughly arranged, and having no enemy pushing on our

rear, we were often billeted at towns and villages longer than we need

have been, which caused our march to take more time to accomplish, but

made it much more comfortable. We were generally billeted on the

inhabitants during our halts, the best billets being of course chosen

for the officers, then for the sergeants, and then for the corporals

and privates, the numbers being suited to the accommodation of the

places; but I very seldom had more than one with me besides myself.


The inhabitants could not have behaved better to us if they had been

our own countrymen; and I well remember how at the last stage where we

put up before coming to Bordeaux two of us, myself and a private of

the same company, were billeted at quite a gentleman's house, the

owners of which were unusually kind to us. We found we had completely

jumped into clover, and fortunately it happened to be Saturday night,

so that our halt was till Monday morning; not that Sunday in those

times had been used to make much difference to us, for two of our

bloodiest conflicts had happened on that day, but in this case, our

haste not being urgent, it gave us a kind of sweet repose.


As soon as we arrived at our house we were shown into our room, which

was a very nice one and beautifully furnished; and when we had taken

off our accoutrements, we went downstairs to a sort of bath-room,

where we had a good wash in tubs of water that were placed in

readiness for us. Then the gentleman had some clean stockings brought

up to us, and when we had made ourselves comfortable he sent up to our

room a loaf of bread and a large bottle of wine holding about three

pints, which we found most acceptable; and it not being long before

the family's dinner was ready, our hostess would insist on our dining

with them. For my own part, not being used to such pomp, and never

having before even seen it, being more accustomed to the kind of

dinners and suppers in which I have described our own colonel and

captain as taking part, I would sooner have crept out of the

invitation; but being pressed we consented, and having been shown into

the dining-room, we sat down to an excellent repast with nobody else

but the lady and gentleman.


The table was laid out most gorgeously with glittering silver, which

came very awkward to our clumsy hands, as we had been more accustomed

to using our fingers for some years; to set off which gorgeousness our

waiter, who was evidently the family footman, wore an out-of-the-way

fine and ugly dress, with his hair plastered up with white powder, of

which I had such an aversion during the first part of my stay in the

army. A most palatable dinner was served of which I freely partook,

though I had very little idea of what it consisted, and some good wine

was likewise often handed round with which our glasses were constantly

kept filled.


After dinner was over, the white-headed gentleman entered with coffee,

a fashion which then surprised us very much; but nevertheless, more

out of compliment than because we needed it, we took a cup each with

some sugar-candy which was also handed round to sweeten it. When that

was finished, just to keep us still going, the gentleman asked us if

we smoked, and on our saying we both did, the bell was rung, and the

footman entering with tobacco, we took a pipe with the gentleman, the

lady having previously retired into the drawing-room. Then getting

more used to the distinguished style, and the wine no doubt having

made us more chatty, we for a time thoroughly enjoyed ourselves with

our pipes, and began to feel new men with all our grandeur.


We were next invited to partake of tea in the drawing-room, but being

very tired, we begged to be excused; and this being granted, the

bed-candles being rung for, and having wished him good-night, we went

to our room and there had a hearty laugh over the evening's business;

though we had not been able to understand half what the gentleman had

said, not being used to the French so well as to the Spanish language.

We retired to rest in a fine feather bed, which being a luxury we had

not seen for years, was consequently too soft for our hard bones, and

we found we could not sleep owing to the change. My comrade soon

jumped out of bed, saying, "I'll be bothered, sergeant, I can't sleep

here!" "No," said I, "no more can I;" so we prepared our usual bed by

wrapping ourselves into a blanket, and then with a knapsack as a

pillow we lay on the floor and soon sank into a profound slumber.


Late in the morning, for we had overslept ourselves, the servant

knocked at the door and said breakfast was waiting; and in a very

short time the master himself came up and knocked, and on our calling

to him to come in he opened the door, and looking in, found we had

been sleeping on the floor. On his wanting to know if there were fleas

in the bed, or what was the cause of our lying on the floor, we made

him understand as well as we could, but it must have been very

imperfectly at the best. He then went down again, and we soon

following him, found an excellent breakfast ready, of which we made a

first-rate meal, and after they had left us, for they had finished

long before us, my comrade and I agreed that we had fallen on luck

now, and no mistake.


Very soon after we had finished our breakfast, the servant entered to

conduct us to the drawing-room, which was splendidly furnished, though

for my own part I would rather have been down in the kitchen. We went

in, however, and our hostess took down a book describing the French

and English languages, so that they might understand some of our words

better, and again asked us the reason why we did not sleep on our bed.

I told her we had not slept on a feather bed for six years, and

answered her other questions, giving her a slight description of the

trials of a soldier in the time of war. She was very much touched, and

could not forbear from crying, more especially when I added that two

privates were to be whipped that very morning for having got drunk

overnight and making a disturbance in the town, to serve as an example

to the regiment. They had been tried by court-martial and sentenced to

a hundred lashes, to be administered in the town and witnessed by the



Although it was Sunday, the drums beat for the regiment to assemble,

and the men were brought into our square; and their sentence having

been read in the presence of all, the first man was led to the

halberds, and the drummers got ready to begin. But five or six

gentlemen of the town made their way into our square and begged the

colonel so hard to let them off, as that was the general wish of the

inhabitants, that at last he dismissed the victims with a reprimand.

The two then thanked the colonel, but he told them not to do so, for

had it not been for the timely interference of the gentlemen, he would

have given them every lash. All were then ordered to disperse, and I

returned to my excellent quarters, where we again received for the

rest of the day no end of kindnesses in the way of luxurious meals,

luncheons, dinner, and coffee, together with plenty of wine, and

before we went to bed, brandy was introduced as a finish: and having

taken a hot glass of that with water, we retired and slept in a

similar way to the night before.


On the following morning we had to assemble by seven o'clock, so no

time was allowed us for breakfast; but our host had ordered our

canteens to be filled with their best wine, and a parcel of sandwiches

to be made up for each of us. We shook hands with the gentleman, duly

thanking him for his kindness, and, rejoining our regiment, were soon

on the march again for Bordeaux, which being not more than a day's

march distant we reached the same night. We encamped at a place two

miles off the city on the banks of the River Garonne, to which even

large ships were able to ascend. Here we lay for five or six weeks,

during which time the inhabitants made many excursions from the city

especially on Sundays, to inspect our army, swarms of costermongers

likewise visiting us every day with wine, spirits, bread, meat, fish,

and fruit of every description for sale. Every Sunday afternoon the

bands of all the regiments played, while the French amused themselves

with dancing, many of them, both male and female, on stilts, which

entertained us more than anything, and besides this there were all

kinds of other jollities in which our soldiers freely joined.


And now I will take the opportunity of saying a few more words as

regards the skulkers. As soon as the peace was declared no less than

seven sergeants of my own company alone had either at this place or on

the march thither made their appearance from the snug dens where they

had been lying, most of whom had been occupying themselves with some

trivial employment in the pay of the Spaniards or Portuguese, but had

now at this crisis abandoned whatever they had been doing, for fear of

being left in the country, or perhaps because they thought that they

might still come in for a share of the praise and pay. Before they

appeared I was the only sergeant in our company, while if the proper

number had been there, there would have been six. I do not mean to

say that there had been no cause at first for their staying behind,

for there were some laid up like myself at Elvas and Estremoz, but it

was their duty to follow up the regiment when they were able, as I had

done myself.


The captain of my company, who had been like myself through the whole

campaign excepting when actually in hospital, pretended not to know

them when he saw them, and asked them, "Where on earth do you come

from? you certainly don't belong to my company, by your appearance."

He then called me to say if I knew them. I remarked, "They seem to

have been in luck's way about their clothes, at any rate;" and so they

did, for whilst ours were as ragged as sheep and as black as rooks,

theirs were as red and new as if they had never been on, and their

shoes were to match, whilst ours were completely worn out by our

continual marches, the captain's being quite as bad as any private's.


We found that two of these men had left the regiment for hospital on

our retreat from Talavera, and had never shown themselves since, the

others having been away in like manner for rather shorter periods. Now

the whole had returned we were overstocked with sergeants, having two

more than our complement, so our captain sent the two who had been

longest absent to the colonel with a written request that they should

be transferred somewhere else; the other five he allowed to remain,

but only for as short a time as possible till he could get rid of them

also, as he told them his company should not be disgraced by them

longer than he could help. He likewise told them that many of his

privates deserved the stripes more than they did; and indeed it was

not long before he got them transferred, and their places filled up by

some of the braver heroes from among such of the privates as had at

all distinguished themselves in any conflict.







     Embarkation of the troops -- Lawrence's regiment sent to Ireland

     -- He receives his pay for the war and promptly spends it --

     Ordered on foreign service again to the West Indies -- Terrific

     storm which compels the fleet to put back into Cork -- Arrival at

     Barbadoes -- Death of a young captain from fever -- Jamaica --

     Discovery of a female stowaway -- Lawrence told off to deposit

     her on shore -- The regiment proceeds to New Orleans -- A new

     kind of fortification to be stormed -- Doings in camp on Dolphin

     Isle -- Return to England -- News arriving of Napoleon's escape

     from Elba, the regiment is sent on at once to Flanders -- Ghent

     -- March to Brussels.



After remaining at Bordeaux for five or six weeks the army embarked on

board ships bound for various parts of the British Isles. Our regiment

was again despatched to Ireland, most of us being Irish. We were

conveyed thither by the _Sultan_, a fine man-of-war with seventy-four

guns. We had a very good passage, and amused ourselves very much with

the sailors on board, who on their part had many a good laugh at our

general ragged appearance. We landed in Ireland at Monkstown, near

Cork, and marched thence to Fermoy, whence after lying two three days

in the barracks there, we proceeded to Athlone in West Meath, where we

were stationed for about two months.


The regiment had never been settled with during the whole of our

Peninsular trip of six years, though money had been advanced to us at

various places, so now while we were waiting at this place the

accounts were made up, and some of our sergeants found they had as

much as 50_l._ or 60_l._ to receive. My own lot amounted to 40_l._, I

being one of the younger sergeants. When our pay had been given us a

week's furlough was granted to the whole regiment, and no doubt most

of the money melted away in that period--at least, I know mine did,

for not having been in the British Isles for so long, we were all

resolved to have a spree. I never went away from Athlone, however, the

whole time, but slept in barracks every night, though there was no

duty to be done as the militia were ordered out for that. I knew that

it would be useless to cross the Channel in that short time to see my

parents, though I should have liked to have done so, but I did not

altogether forget them, and wrote to them to ease their minds about my

whereabouts; as I had written to them during my stay in the Peninsula,

and I thought they might have been anxious about my safety when they

heard or read about the scenes that were taking place there, as

parents naturally are about their children, be they ever so rackety.


But we were not allowed to stay here even in peace long, for at the

end of the two months we were again ordered on foreign service, and

marched to a place called Mallow in Cork, whence, having been joined

there by our second battalion, and having had all the men fit for

service drafted out of that into ours, we proceeded to Cork itself.

This was a fine place for our captain to get rid of the remaining

skulkers, and he left them behind, much to their annoyance, in the

second battalion.


From Cork we proceeded to the Cove to embark, after a stay in Ireland

now of about three months altogether; and when all was in readiness on

board the ships, we set sail for the West Indies. It can be better

imagined than I can describe in what sort of spirit we began this

other war, scarcely having slipped out of one field before we were

launched into another; but as they were the usual thing on our

embarkations, the same scenes that took place at Portsmouth will serve

to picture those at Cork: they did not tend to enliven us much, but

they were soon forgotten when we got to work talking over and telling

our new comrades the many tales of the Peninsula.


After launching out of Cork Harbour, however, a terrible gale blew up,

which obliged us to put into Bantry Bay for a time. One of our ships

was lost on the rocks, but fortunately all on board were saved. They

had lost all their accoutrements, however, so they were taken on board

various ships, and as soon as we got fairer weather we returned to the

Cove to await a fresh supply, which was at least three weeks in

coming. Then we again set sail, amusing ourselves on the voyage as we

best could; and having good weather, we arrived as soon as could be

expected at Barbadoes, and anchored there for a short time. One of the

captains of my regiment, who had probably seen enough of war to

satisfy him, had before our start sold his commission to a younger

officer who gave him 1200_l._ for it; but, singular to say, the very

first night of this our anchorage this poor young man went to sleep on

shore, and, catching a fever, was brought on board and a few hours

afterwards was a lifeless corpse. Owing to the infectiousness of his

disease, he had to be immediately sewn up with two of our large shot

in a blanket, and the funeral service being read by an officer as

there was no minister on board, he was put into the sea.


From Barbadoes we sailed to Jamaica, and anchored off Port Royal. A

singular circumstance occurred during our stay there: a girl was

discovered who had been concealed on board at Cork by some of the

sailors in a bundle of straw unbeknown to the captain of the ship.

This being the best place for shipping her back to England, she was

obliged to leave her accomplices at once, and I being sergeant of the

watch was called to take her on shore to Port Royal with two privates.

We took her to a kind of public-house, where, although it was two

o'clock in the morning, the people were still amusing themselves in

dancing to some rough music of their own, the whole of them being

blacks. We asked for the landlord, and on his soon making his

appearance from among the company, as black as a crow and still

steaming with the dance, I inquired if the girl could have a bed there

for the night. He said, "Yes, for a dollar." I thought that was a

stiffish price for a night considering it was two o'clock in the

morning, but I paid him the sum and left the poor unfortunate girl

there while we returned to our ships. I was very sorry for her, as she

seemed nearly broken-hearted, but I could do no more for her under the

circumstances, and I hope she got safe back to England after all.


After about a week had elapsed a gun-brig arrived to convey us to

North America, England being then at war with the Americans, and we

went on in her to the mouth of the River Mississippi. There we

disembarked into barges holding about a hundred troops each, and

having been towed up by other small sailing and rowing boats to

Orleans, were put on shore near that place, our body consisting of

five English and two black regiments, with a battalion of marines.


We marched on the same day and encamped about two miles from the city.

Skirmishing was kept up with this our new enemy during the night, but

without any great casualty happening. On the following morning,

however, we advanced in a body to attack a battery that had been

constructed near the city, chiefly out of barrels of brown sugar. We

were at first warmly received with the cannon and musketry planted

there, but they soon got tired of our Peninsular medicines: I suppose

the pills disagreed with them, for they were very quickly obliged to

retire into the city and no more fighting ensued; and some terms

having been hinted at, when the black regiments had eaten a quantity

of the fortifications, which they seemed to be very fond of, and we

had put some into our haversacks as likely to be useful to sweeten our

cocoa, we returned to our boats, and dropping down the river to a

piece of land called Dolphin Isle, there encamped again.


The island was uninhabited, except that there were plenty of

alligators, racoons, and oysters there; but we had plenty of

provisions, that is, in the shape of meat and flour, though no bread,

which inconvenience was from the want of ovens. We soon set to work,

however, to construct one by burning a quantity of oyster-shells for

lime, and having mixed that with sand and water we made some very good

cement; after which we got a lot of iron hoops from the vessels, with

which we formed the arch, and so we put one oven together; and I much

doubt if it did not bake as well as any English one, considering the

style of dough that we had. After it had been found to answer so well,

at least twenty more were constructed on the once desolate but now

busy little isle. We were constantly on the coast in search of

oysters, of which there was an abundance; and some of the more

industrious of us even collected them for sale among the troops who

either preferred buying them to taking the trouble of collecting them

for themselves, or else were unable to go on the sands on account of

being on duty. They were sold very cheap, however; I have known half a

bushel go for one dollar, which was certainly not much for the trouble

of getting them.


During our stay here a playhouse was likewise erected, and some of the

more clever among the officers and men amused the troops in that way.

The scenery was rather rude, to be sure; but with these and various

other games and freaks the three months that we lay there passed off

very pleasantly The poor blacks, however, suffered dreadfully from the

cold, it being then winter, and they had to be sent back to their own

country long before we left.


Our chief reason for lying there so long was to see all settled and to

wait for orders before we proceeded back to England. When the order

did come, joy was in every mouth, for this was indeed a short campaign

compared with our Peninsular affairs, and it may be supposed we were

by no means sorry for that. We embarked on board the same ships, and

again tacked to the West Indies to get provisions at one of the

Spanish islands, where we took on board live cattle and water, and as

food for the former a kind of cabbage, which on account of their size

were called cabbage-trees.


Thence we proceeded on our route to Portsmouth, and had a very

pleasant voyage with fair weather prevailing; but when near England we

fell in with an English frigate, which informed us that Napoleon

Buonaparte had left the island of Elba with a small force and had

landed in France to collect more troops. This was indeed a

disappointment to me, for I felt sure that if he again intended

disturbing Europe, we should have to be on the scene again. But in

another way it caused no small amount of stir on board, for the young

officers, who were looking ravenously forward to promotion, were so

rejoiced at the news that they treated all the men to an extra glass

of grog, to make everybody as lively as themselves.


Nothing else of any particular note occurred on our voyage, and

having arrived near Portsmouth a signal was raised, and we fell in on

the quarantine ground, hoisting a yellow flag for a doctor to inspect

us on board. When he came he found all on board our ship to be in very

good condition, which was reported to the general, and the very next

morning he signalled to us to weigh anchor and proceed to Flanders; so

without setting foot on English ground we again went on our way to

meet our common enemy. This time, however, he was not in his old

quarters, but in the north of France, where he had collected more than

a hundred thousand troops.


I left Portsmouth this time with a good deal lighter heart than I had

last, being now more used to war and hardships than to peace and

plenty, though perhaps I would rather have landed than proceed on this

errand; and, indeed, there were many of us who had left wife and

children at home who went off with a very sad heart.


Our voyage this time was a very short one, only occupying one day; and

early on the following morning we arrived in sight of Flanders and

there brought up at anchor. Very shortly some small vessels came

alongside to convey us to the quay at Ostend, where we landed, and

after marching about half a mile we came to a canal, where we embarked

in large open barges, in which we were towed by horses past Bruges,

about twelve miles off Ostend, to Ghent, which at a wide guess might

be twice the same distance further. We landed at Ghent and lay there

about nine days, while Louis XVIII. was staying in the town, he

having been obliged to flee from Paris by that old disturber after a

short reign of about ten months.


At the end of the nine days the drums beat at midnight, and we arrayed

ourselves in marching order as quickly as possible. The landlord of

the house where I was staying had got up, and would kindly insist on

filling our canteens--that is a capacity of about three pints--with

gin, giving us as well some bread and meat each, and warning us to

look out, for he knew the French were coming. All having assembled at

the rendezvous, orders were given to march on to Brussels immediately.

I could not exactly say what the distance was, but it was probably not

less than forty miles, taking us two days of hard marching to

accomplish it.







     Waterloo -- Dreadful night before the battle -- Opening of the

     battle -- Unpleasant contiguity with a shell -- A recruit taken

     suddenly and conveniently ill -- The regiment in the thick of it

     -- Rout of Napoleon's Bodyguards -- Repeated charges of the

     French infantry and cavalry successfully repulsed -- Lawrence in

     charge of the colours -- Death of his captain -- Gallant stand of

     the British until the arrival of the Prussians -- Lawrence on the

     tactics of the enemy -- The French finally driven off the field

     by Blucher's army -- Bivouac on the enemy's ground -- Fatal

     results of trifling with a powder-wagon -- Lawrence's supper in

     danger -- He invites a guest to supper, who, however, takes

     French leave -- On the march again.



On the 17th of June, 1815, we marched through Brussels, amid the joy

of the inhabitants, who brought us out all manner of refreshments. I

heard some remarks from them to the effect that we were all going to

be slaughtered like bullocks, but we only laughed at this, telling

them that that was nothing new to us. Some of the younger recruits,

however, were terribly downcast and frightened at the idea of

fighting, but I have often found that it is these most timid ones who

when they come to an actual battle rush forward and get killed first;

probably owing to the confused state they are in, while the more

disciplined soldiers know better what course to pursue.


From Brussels we marched to about five or six miles out of the town,

not far from the village of Waterloo, when our commander sent his

aide-de-camp to Lord Wellington for general orders how he was to act,

or as to what part of the line we were to fall in at. The orders

returned were that we were to stay in our present position till next

morning, so that night we crept into any hole we could find, cowsheds,

cart-houses, and all kinds of farmstead buildings, for shelter, and I

never remember a worse night in all the Peninsular war, for the rain

descended in torrents, mixed with fearful thunder and lightning, and

seeming to foretell the fate of the following morning, the 18th, which

again happened to be Sunday.


The allied army had on the 16th and 17th been attacked by Napoleon's

large forces at Ligny and Quatre Bras, but neither side had obtained

any great success, beyond thousands being killed on both sides; during

the night of the 17th, therefore, firing was continually going on,

which I could distinctly hear, in spite of its being considerably

drowned by the thunder. All that night was one continued clamour, for

thousands of camp-followers were on their retreat to Brussels, fearful

of sticking to the army after the Quatre Bras affair. It was indeed a

sight, for owing to the rain and continued traffic the roads were

almost impassable, and the people were sometimes completely stuck in

the mud: and besides these a continual stream of baggage-wagons was

kept up through the night.


Early in the morning of the 18th we were again put on the march to

join our lines, our position being in the reserve, which included the

Fourth and Twenty-Seventh Regiments, together with a body of

Brunswickers and Dutch, and formed a line between Merk Braine and Mont

St. Jean on the Brussels road. Our regiment took the left of this

road, but did not remain there long, for the French were seen in

motion, and on their opening fire from their cannon we soon marched up

to action in open column.


During this movement a shell from the enemy cut our

deputy-sergeant-major in two, and having passed on to take the head

off one of my company of grenadiers named William Hooper, exploded in

the rear not more than one yard from me, hurling me at least two yards

into the air, but fortunately doing me little injury beyond the

shaking and carrying a small piece of skin off the side of my face. It

was indeed another narrow escape, for it burnt the tail of my sash

completely off, and turned the handle of my sword perfectly black. I

remember remarking to a sergeant who was standing close by me when I

fell, "This is sharp work to begin with, I hope it will end better:"

and even this much had unfortunately so frightened one of the young

recruits of my company, named Bartram, who had never before been in

action and now did not like the curious evolutions of this shell so

close to him, that he called out to me and said he must fall out of

rank, as he was taken very ill. I could easily see the cause of his

illness, so I pushed him into rank again, saying, "Why, Bartram, it's

the smell of this little powder that has caused your illness; there's

nothing else the matter with you;" but that physic would not content

him at all, and he fell down and would not proceed another inch. I was

fearfully put out at this, but was obliged to leave him, or if he had

had his due he ought to have been shot. From this time I never saw him

again for at least six months, but even then I did not forget him for

this affair of cowardice, as I shall have occasion to show hereafter.


The right of our line had been engaged some little time before we

were ordered up, and then our position was changed, we having to cross

the road and proceed to the right of a farmhouse called La Haye

Sainte. Owing to the rain that had been peppering down the whole night

and even now had not quite ceased, the fields and roads were in a

fearful state of dirt and mud, which tended to retard our progress

greatly as well as to tire us. It made it very bad too for the action

of cavalry, and even more so for artillery.


About ten o'clock the action of the day began at Hougoumont on our

right, and from there it fell on our centre, where we were attacked by

a tremendous body of cavalry and infantry. The fire, however, which

had been kept up for hours from the enemy's cannon had now to be

abated in that quarter, owing to the close unison of the two armies.

And from this time onward we endured some heavy work throughout the

day, having constantly to be first forming square to receive the

repeated attacks of their cavalry, and then line to meet their

infantry, charge after charge being made upon us, but with very little

success. At the commencement the commanding officer was killed by a

musket-shot, but his place was soon filled up.


On our left on the turnpike road was placed a brigade of German

cavalry with light horses and men. When Buonaparte's Bodyguards came

up they charged these, making fearful havoc amongst their number; they

were routed and obliged to retreat, but the Life Guards and Scotch

Greys fortunately making their appearance immediately, some close

handwork took place, and the Bodyguards at last finding their match,

or even more, were in their turn compelled to fall back before the

charge of our cavalry, numbers of them being cut to pieces. Still

nothing daunted, they formed again, and this time ascended at us; but

of the two, they met with a worse reception than before, for we

instantly threw ourselves into three squares with our artillery in the

centre; and the word having been given not to fire at the men, who

wore armour, but at the horses, which was obeyed to the very letter,

as soon as they arrived at close quarters we opened a deadly fire, and

very few of them wholly escaped. They managed certainly at first to

capture our guns, but they were again recovered by the fire of our

three squares; and it was a most laughable sight to see these Guards

in their chimney-armour trying to run away after their horses had been

shot from under them, being able to make very little progress, and

many of them being taken prisoners by those of our light companies who

were out skirmishing. I think this quite settled Buonaparte's

Bodyguards, for we saw no more of them, they not having expected this

signal defeat.


That affair, however, had only passed off a very few minutes before

their infantry advanced and we had again to form line ready to meet

them. We in our usual style let the infantry get well within our

musket-shot before the order was given to fire, so that our volley

proved to be of fearful success: and then immediately charging them we

gave them a good start back again, but not without a loss on our side

as well as on theirs. And no sooner had they disappeared than another

charge of cavalry was made, so that we again had to throw ourselves

into square on our old ground. These cavalry had no doubt expected to

appear amongst us before we could accomplish this, but fortunately

they were mistaken, and our persistent fire soon turned them. We did

not lose a single inch of ground the whole day, though after these

successive charges our numbers were fearfully thinned; and even during

the short interval between each charge the enemy's cannon had been

doing some mischief among our ranks besides.


The men in their tired state were beginning to despair, but the

officers cheered them on continually throughout the day with the cry

of "Keep your ground, my men!" It is a mystery to me how it was

accomplished, for at last so few were left that there were scarcely

enough to form square.


About four o'clock I was ordered to the colours. This, although I was

used to warfare as much as any, was a job I did not at all like; but

still I went as boldly to work as I could. There had been before me

that day fourteen sergeants already killed and wounded while in charge

of those colours, with officers in proportion, and the staff and

colours were almost cut to pieces. This job will never be blotted from

my memory: although I am now an old man, I remember it as if it had

been yesterday. I had not been there more than a quarter of an hour

when a cannon-shot came and took the captain's head clean off. This

was again close to me, for my left side was touching the poor

captain's right, and I was spattered all over with his blood. One of

his company who was close by at the time, cried out, "Hullo, there

goes my best friend," which caused a lieutenant, who quickly stepped

forward to take his place, to say to the man, "Never mind, I will be

as good a friend to you as the captain." The man replied, "I hope not,

sir;" the officer not having rightly understood his meaning, the late

captain having been particularly hard on him for his dirtiness, giving

him extra duty and suchlike as punishment. This man, whose name was

Marten, was a notorious character in the regiment, and I was myself

tolerably well acquainted with him, for he had once been in my

company; but on account of the same thing, dirtiness in his person, he

had been transferred to this the fifth company, where neither this

poor captain had been able to reform him, try however hard he might.

Still he was for all this an excellent soldier in the field.


But now I must get on to the last charge of cavalry, which took place

not very long after this. Few as we were, when we saw it coming we

formed squares and awaited it. Then we poured volley after volley

into them, doing fearful execution, and they had to retire at last

before the strong dose we administered; not, however, without our

losing more men and so becoming even weaker than before. We were

dreading another charge, but all the help we got was the cry of "Keep

your ground, my men, reinforcements are coming!" Not a bit, however,

did they come till the setting sun, in time to pursue our retreating

enemy; the Prussians under Marshal Blucher having been detained

elsewhere, and although long expected, only being able at this period

to make their appearance at last.


I must say here that I cannot think why those charges of cavalry were

kept up against our unbroken squares, in spite of their being so

constantly sent back. It is murder to send cavalry against disciplined

infantry unless they have artillery to act in conjunction with them,

in which case they might possibly succeed in routing them if they

could take advantage of their falling into confusion, but not



We were indeed glad to see the arrival of these Prussians, who now

coming up in two columns on our left flank, advanced on the enemy's

right. Lord Wellington, who was ever enticing his army on, now came up

to our regiment and asked who was in command. On being told it was

Captain Brown, he gave the order to advance, which we received with

three cheers, and off we set as if renewed with fresh vigour. The

attack was now being made by the whole line, together with the

Prussians, who had come up fresh and were therefore more than a match

for the harassed French. They soon forced the French into a downright

retreat by their fire, and the retreat becoming universal, the whole

body of the French were thrown into disorder and pursued off the field

by Blucher's fresh and untired infantry and cavalry.


We followed them ourselves for about a mile, and then encamped on the

enemy's ground; and if ever there was a hungry and tired tribe of men,

we were that after that memorable day of the 18th of June. Then the

first thing to be thought of was to get a fire and cook some food,

which was not so easy, as wood was scarce and what there was was wet

through. One of our company, named Rouse, who went out in search of

sticks, came across one of the enemy's powder-wagons that we had taken

in the battle amongst the rest of the many things, and immediately

commenced cutting the cover up for fuel; but his hook coming in

contact with a nail or some other piece of iron and striking fire, as

a natural consequence the remains of the powder in the wagon exploded

and lifted the poor fellow to a considerable height in the air. The

most remarkable thing was that he was still alive when he came down

and able to speak, though everything had been blown from him except

one of his shoes. He was a perfect blackguard, for although he was in

a most dangerous state he did not refrain from cursing his eyes, which

happened, as it was, to be both gone, and saying what a fool he must

have been. He was that night conveyed to Brussels Hospital with the

rest of the many wounded, and died in a few days, raving mad.


We succeeded, however, in getting a fire at last, and then as I

happened that night to be orderly sergeant to our general I went and

reported myself to him. He was at the time sitting on a gun-carriage

holding his horse, and when he saw me, said, "That's right, sergeant;

I expect two more sergeants directly, but I wish you would meanwhile

try and get some corn for my poor horse." Off I went accordingly, and

found two bushels or so in a sack which had evidently been left by the

enemy, as it was on one of their cannon. When I opened the sack I

found to my great surprise that it likewise contained a large ham and

two fowls, so I asked the general if he would accept them; he,

however, declined, saying he would take the corn, but that I might

keep the meat for myself, advising me, however, to keep it out of

sight of the Prussians, who were a slippery set of men and very likely

to steal it if they saw it.


I prepared the hanger for the pot as quickly as possible, putting

cross-sticks over the fire at a sufficient distance to prevent them

igniting; but before I had finished doing this a quantity of these

same Prussians whom the general had been watching and warned me

against passed by; and two of them coming to my fire to light their

pipes noticed the ham, and remarked that it looked good. I thought it

best to take my sword and immediately cut them off a piece each, and

they relieved my fears by going off seemingly quite satisfied. They

were evidently on the march following up the French, for the whole

night we could hear the distant sound of cannon and musketry from the

French and Prussians, Lord Wellington having completely given up the

pursuit to Marshal Blucher.


I pretty quickly put my ham in the pot after that, and the two

sergeants coming up, I set them to pick the fowls, and these soon

going in after the ham, in two hours were pretty well done. About this

time I heard a Frenchman groaning under a cannon, where he was lying

on a quantity of straw. I thought he was badly wounded, and perhaps as

hungry as myself, so I went to him and told him as well as I was able

to stop till our supper was cooked, and then I would bring him some;

but when it was ready and I had cut off some bread, fowl, and ham, and

taken it to the place where I had seen him, he had gone. For one

reason I was not sorry, for he left his straw, which made a very good

bed for us three sergeants, the ground itself being unpleasantly wet.

I think perhaps this Frenchman must have been a skulker, or he would

not have ventured to escape.


We sat down ourselves, however, and made a very good meal off our ham

and poultry, and I can safely say we enjoyed our mess as much as men

ever did, for I, for one, had had nothing to eat since early in the

morning up to that time. After that, as the general did not want us

for anything, we retired to rest on our straw, but I was too tired to

go to sleep for a long time, and lay contemplating the scenes of the

day. I was merely scratched on the face myself during the whole day,

besides being a little shaken by the bursting of the shell I

mentioned; but this scratch had been terribly aggravated by a private

who had been standing next to me having overprimed his musket, with

the consequence that when he fired, my face being so close, the powder

flew up and caught my wound, which though only originally a slight one

soon made me dance for a time without a fiddle.


Of the general loss on that blood-stained day I am unable to give an

exact account, but it must have been enormous on both sides, for three

hundred of my regiment alone were missing; and this was not so great a

loss as that of some regiments, for the one on our right lost six

hundred, chiefly from the continual fire of shot and shell that the

French cannon had kept up between the charges. But now there was very

little delay; and early next morning we were again put in motion, to

prevent our enemy, if possible, from getting any breathing time. The

Prussians were at least twelve hours in advance of us, so that we

really had not much to fear; but still some doubt was entertained as

to whether the enemy would make another stand in their own territory,

and in all probability such would have been the case if Blucher had

not been pushing so close on their heels. I very much doubt, too, if,

had not the Prussians come up when they did, both armies would not

have remained on the field of Waterloo, and perhaps have joined battle

again in the morning, for the French had been expecting fresh

reinforcements after their defeat; but these not arriving and we being

increased in numbers, no resource was left them but to retreat.







     Advance to Paris -- Lawrence on the general fickleness of

     humanity -- Flight and surrender of Napoleon -- Enthusiastic

     reception of Louis XVIII. by the Parisians rather snubbed by Lord

     Wellington -- Lawrence assists in escorting Louis to his throne

     -- Comfortable quarters in Paris -- Various historical events of

     more or less importance -- Review and sham fight -- Sequel to the

     story of the sickly recruit -- An incorrigible subject -- Flogged

     four times, and then drummed out of the regiment -- Another very

     simple tale of true love, but one in which Lawrence is this time

     more immediately concerned -- Married, though not exactly settled

     -- Departure from Paris.



Our march now lay in the direction of Paris, and being made all in the

daytime, caused us very little fatigue, as we halted often, besides

always encamping or billeting at night. We never fell in with the

enemy ourselves, though some few collisions took place between the

Prussians and French after this, and likewise some towns were taken by

our army; but beyond that our march was generally quiet, and we

continued on to within a few miles of, and in sight of Paris, where we

remained for a short time, coming up here with our allies the

Prussians. They had already opened fire on that city of despotism,

which was returned faintly by the enemy; but once the balance is

turned, and once a man, however great, is defeated, all seem to

forsake him, and he immediately becomes an usurper, as was shown to be

true in this Napoleon's case. There is not a doubt that the populace

would have held to him if he had been a conqueror, but as it was, the

whole city now changed its sentiments from Napoleon to Louis XVIII.,

who had advanced with us with about fifty of his own guards.


On our approach to the city the inhabitants soon sent a flag of truce

for terms, and the firing having ceased on both sides, these were

agreed upon, and the city gates were opened. Napoleon Buonaparte had

previously flown to t